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PURPOSE A rare 5% of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) metastasize, lack FDA-approved therapies, and carry a poor prognosis. Our aim was to identify recurrent genomic alterations in this little-studied population of metastatic cSCCs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We performed targeted sequencing of 504 cancer-associated genes on lymph node metastases in 29(More)
SOX2 is an embryonic neural crest stem-cell transcription factor recently shown to be expressed in human melanoma and to correlate with experimental tumor growth. SOX2 binds to an enhancer region of the gene that encodes for nestin, also a neural progenitor cell biomarker. To define further the potential relationship between SOX2 and nestin, we examined(More)
CONTEXT Melanoma growing as a tumorigenic nodule is one of the most virulent neoplasms to which the flesh is heir. At a considerably small tumor size, it incurs significant risk for widespread metastatic dissemination. There are no effective means of surgical intervention, chemical therapy, or immunologic therapy for advanced and metastatic melanoma. (More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors (anti-TNF-α biologic drugs), currently used to treat different autoimmune conditions, may be associated with cutaneous drug reactions. New onset or worsening of psoriasis and psoriasis-like reactions have been reported in these patients. However, not much is known about the different histopathologic patterns of such(More)
A human polyomavirus was recently discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) specimens. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) genome undergoes clonal integration into the host cell chromosomes of MCC tumors and expresses small T antigen and truncated large T antigen. Previous studies have consistently reported that MCPyV can be detected in approximately 80%(More)
The mechanisms of melanoma invasion are poorly understood despite extensive inquiry. SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) is an embryonic stem cell transcription factor that has recently been discovered to be expressed in human melanoma where it is associated with dermal invasion and primary tumor thickness. To assess the potential role of SOX2(More)
SOX2 is a gene located on chromosome 3q26.33 that encodes a transcription factor important to maintenance of embryonic neural crest stem cell pluripotency. We have identified rare SOX2-immunoreactive cells in normal human skin at or near the established stem cell niches. Three subsets of SOX2-positive cells were defined in these regions: those expressing(More)
Accurate morphologic distinction between small cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma has critical therapeutic significance, but can be limited by crush artifact, tumor necrosis, limited tumor representation, and overlapping morphologic features. We evaluated a panel of antibodies for their efficacy in distinguishing between these(More)
Hemolyzed specimens are rejected for coagulation testing based on concerns of artifactual interference. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and selected factor assay test results for consecutive pairs of hemolyzed and subsequently recollected (mean, 72 minutes later) nonhemolyzed patient specimens were compared. Specimens(More)