Alonso Heredia

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Each year, 55 000 organ transplants are performed worldwide. Cumulatively, the number of living organ recipients is now estimated to be over 300 000. Most of these transplant recipients will remain on immunosuppressive drugs for the remainder of their lives to prevent rejection episodes. Controlled doses of these drugs are required to prevent(More)
Vicriviroc (VCV) is a chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist with potent anti-HIV activity that currently is being evaluated in phase III clinical trials. In the present study, donor CCR5 density (CCR5 receptors/CD4 lymphocytes) inversely correlated with VCV antiviral activity (Spearman's correlation test; r = 0.746, P = 0.0034). Low doses of(More)
HIV necessitates host factors for successful completion of its life cycle. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase that forms two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Rapamycin is an allosteric inhibitor of mTOR that selectively inhibits mTORC1. Rapamycin interferes with viral entry of CCR5 (R5)-tropic HIV and with basal(More)
Resveratrol is a natural product with diverse biological activities. We have previously reported that resveratrol possesses potent synergistic inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in combination with nucleoside analogs (Heredia et al. 2000. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 25:246-255). As a part of our program in developing(More)
Propagation of R5 strains of HIV-1 on CD4 lymphocytes and macrophages requires expression of the CCR5 coreceptor on the cell surface. Individuals lacking CCR5 (CCR5 Delta 32 homozygous genotype) are phenotypically normal and resistant to infection with HIV-1. CCR5 expression on lymphocytes depends on signaling through the IL-2 receptor. By FACS analysis we(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor Indirubin-3'-monoxime (IM) on Tat-mediated transactivation function, a step of the HIV-1 cycle that is not currently targeted in antiviral therapy. METHODS The effects of IM on CDK implicated in HIV-1 Tat transactivation function were evaluated by kinase assays, transfection(More)
R5 HIV-1 strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc (MVC) can use drug-bound CCR5. We demonstrate that MVC-resistant HIV-1 exhibits delayed kinetics of coreceptor engagement and fusion during drug-bound versus free CCR5 infection of cell lines. Antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5 had greater antiviral activity(More)
Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4;-trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin present in grapes, wine, and certain plants, which has recently been reported to possess properties that may protect against atherosclerosis, certain cancers, and inflammation. We now report that resveratrol (RV) synergistically enhances the anti-HIV-1 activity of the nucleoside analogues(More)
BACKGROUND Targeting host-cell pathways to increase the potency of nucleoside/nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is an important strategy for clinical investigation. Resveratrol is a natural product that inhibits cellular ribonucleotide reductase, prolonging the S phase of the cell cycle and preferentially lowering dATP levels. (More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection requires functional interactions of the viral surface (gp120) glycoprotein with cell surface CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor (usually CCR5 or CXCR4) and of the viral transmembrane (gp41) glycoprotein with the target cell membrane. Extensive genetic variability, generally in gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain,(More)