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Central retinal vein occlusion is one of the most common retinal vascular disorders. Many patients have decreased visual acuity as a result of macular edema. We report a retrospective review of 8 patients at the University of Wisconsin with macular edema from CRVO who were treated with an intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Optical coherence(More)
PURPOSE To alert ophthalmologists to the recognition of cortical visual loss as the presenting feature in patients with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLES). Unique radiologic findings are paramount to the diagnosis. DESIGN Interventional case report. METHODS A patient was seen with perioperative bilateral cerebral visual loss that(More)
PURPOSE The homeobox transcription factor PITX2 is a known regulator of mammalian ocular development, and human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS). However, the treatment of patients with ARS remains mostly supportive and palliative. METHODS The authors used molecular genetic, pharmacologic, and embryologic techniques to(More)
1-Phenyl 2-thiourea (PTU) is a tyrosinase inhibitor commonly used to block pigmentation and aid visualization of zebrafish development. At the standard concentration of 0.003% (200 µM), PTU inhibits melanogenesis and reportedly has minimal other effects on zebrafish embryogenesis. We found that 0.003% PTU altered retinoic acid and insulin-like growth factor(More)
Thyroid eye disease (TED) usually has mild manifestations in pediatric patients, and orbital decompression is rarely necessarily. The authors present the clinical course of 3 pediatric patients age 16 or younger at the time of decompression surgery with severe orbitopathy. Case 1 is a 9-year-old prepubertal Asian-American female with Graves' disease and TED(More)
Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) regulate critical biological processes such as embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. In zebrafish, Fgf signaling plays an important role in the regeneration of the spinal cord, liver, heart, fin, and photoreceptors, although its exact mechanism of action is not fully understood.(More)
Cell identity involves both selective gene activity and specialization of cytoplasmic architecture and protein machinery. Similarly, reprogramming differentiated cells requires both genetic program alterations and remodeling of the cellular architecture. While changes in genetic and epigenetic programs have been well documented in dedifferentiating cells,(More)
In eukaryotes, targeting the small ribosomal subunit to the mRNA transcript requires a Kozak sequence at the translation initiation site. Despite the critical importance of the Kozak sequence to regulation of gene expression, there have been no correlation studies between its natural variance and efficiency of translation. Combining bioinformatics analysis(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide as treatment for macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS We reviewed the medical records of 13 consecutive patients (13 eyes) with macular edema associated with CRVO who were treated with an injection of intravitreal triamcinolone(More)
In the anterior vertebrate head, a population of neural crest cells (NCCs) migrates to the periocular mesenchyme and makes critical contributions to the developing eye and orbit. Improper migration and differentiation of these NCCs have been implicated in human diseases such as congenital glaucoma and anterior segment dysgenesis syndromes. The mechanisms by(More)