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After a program of therapeutic electrical stimulation, 3 groups of incomplete spinal cord injured (SCI) patients were identified, those in whom an improvement of both voluntary and stimulated muscle force was observed, those with an increase in stimulation response only, and patients in whom no effect of electrical stimulation training could be recorded. As(More)
A formal definition of human standing up and sitting down movements based on sagittal plane goniometric and force plate data from 20 normal subjects is presented. This definition is comparable to the established gait cycle diagram, and consists of defined characteristic events and relative time intervals between them. The characteristic events are selected(More)
Recent advances in science have aided research toward the restoration of biped gait in paraplegic patients by means of functional electrical stimulation (FES). In this paper it is shown how FES-restrengthened muscles of paraplegic patients have been used for simple FES-assisted standing. Those experiments subsequently led to biped gait-initializing(More)
Functional movements can be restored after stroke by portable neuroelectric stimulator controlled by the patient. This field of activity is called functional electrical stimulation (FES). A common example of FES is electric stimulation of the peroneal to prevent dropfoot. A more sophisticated multichannel enables stimulation of more than one paralyzed(More)
The joint torques in hip, knee and ankle were measured during the standing-up of a healthy subject. Force plate and stroboscopic photography were used in the experiment. It has been observed that the time courses of particular joint torques depend on the kind of standing-up. On the basis of these results a standing-up procedure for paraplegic patients was(More)
The sit-to-stand transfer of paraplegic patients using functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the knee extensors and arm support was analyzed in the study. In a group of 8 completely paralyzed subjects who were trained FES users, kinematic and dynamic parameters were recorded during standing up trials. A contactless optical system was used to assess the(More)
The aim is to study the influence of electrically stimulated calf muscles on the effectiveness of the swinging leg movement. The study is carried out with a group of patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries both under stationary conditions and during crutch-assisted walking. Before stimulation is applied to the ankle plantar flexors, the knee extensors(More)
This article reports the use of electrical stimulation to provide paraplegic patients with complete lesions of the spinal cord the ability to rise from sitting to standing, to maintain a standing position, and to walk with a reciprocal gait. Four channels of electrical stimulation are sufficient for synthesis of a simple reciprocal gait pattern in these(More)