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A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a system that allows its users to control external devices with brain activity. Although the proof-of-concept was given decades ago, the reliable translation of user intent into device control commands is still a major challenge. Success requires the effective interaction of two adaptive controllers: the user's brain,(More)
Interest in developing a new method of man-to-machine communication--a brain-computer interface (BCI)--has grown steadily over the past few decades. BCIs create a new communication channel between the brain and an output device by bypassing conventional motor output pathways of nerves and muscles. These systems use signals recorded from the scalp, the(More)
We propose a new measure (phase-slope index) to estimate the direction of information flux in multivariate time series. This measure (a) is insensitive to mixtures of independent sources, (b) gives meaningful results even if the phase spectrum is not linear, and (c) properly weights contributions from different frequencies. These properties are shown in(More)
T he purpose of a brain-computer interface (BCI) is to identify the user's intention by observing and analyzing brain activity without relying on signals from muscles or peripheral nerves. 1 Researchers typically rely on electroencepha-lography (EEG) 1-3 to characterize brain activity, but they also use electrocorticography (EcoG), near-infrared(More)
The self-paced control paradigm enables users to operate brain-computer interfaces (BCI) in a more natural way: no longer is the machine in control of the timing and speed of communication, but rather the user is. This is important to enhance the usability, flexibility, and response time of a BCI. In this work, we show how subjects, after performing(More)
The BCI competition IV stands in the tradition of prior BCI competitions that aim to provide high quality neuroscientific data for open access to the scientific community. As experienced already in prior competitions not only scientists from the narrow field of BCI compete, but scholars with a broad variety of backgrounds and nationalities. They include(More)
Methods of spatio-temporal analysis provide important tools for characterizing several dynamic aspects of brain oscillations that are reflected in the human scalp-detected electroencephalogram (EEG). The search to identify the dynamic connectivity of brain signals within different frequency bands, in order to uncover the transient cooperation between(More)
A study of different on-line adaptive classifiers, using various feature types is presented. Motor imagery brain computer interface (BCI) experiments were carried out with 18 naive able-bodied subjects. Experiments were done with three two-class, cue-based, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based systems. Two continuously adaptive classifiers were tested: adaptive(More)
A viable fully on-line adaptive brain computer interface (BCI) is introduced. On-line experiments with nine naive and able-bodied subjects were carried out using a continuously adaptive BCI system. The data were analyzed and the viability of the system was studied. The BCI was based on motor imagery, the feature extraction was performed with an adaptive(More)
BioSig is an open source software library for biomedical signal processing. The aim of the BioSig project is to foster research in biomedical signal processing by providing free and open source software tools for many different application areas. Some of the areas where BioSig can be employed are neuroinformatics, brain-computer interfaces, neurophysiology,(More)