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A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a system that allows its users to control external devices with brain activity. Although the proof-of-concept was given decades ago, the reliable translation of user intent into device control commands is still a major challenge. Success requires the effective interaction of two adaptive controllers: the user's brain,(More)
We propose a new measure (phase-slope index) to estimate the direction of information flux in multivariate time series. This measure (a) is insensitive to mixtures of independent sources, (b) gives meaningful results even if the phase spectrum is not linear, and (c) properly weights contributions from different frequencies. These properties are shown in(More)
We studied the reactivity of EEG rhythms (mu rhythms) in association with the imagination of right hand, left hand, foot, and tongue movement with 60 EEG electrodes in nine able-bodied subjects. During hand motor imagery, the hand mu rhythm blocked or desynchronized in all subjects, whereas an enhancement of the hand area mu rhythm was observed during foot(More)
OBJECTIVE A fully automated method for reducing EOG artifacts is presented and validated. METHODS The correction method is based on regression analysis and was applied to 18 recordings with 22 channels and approx. 6 min each. Two independent experts scored the original and corrected EEG in a blinded evaluation. RESULTS The expert scorers identified in(More)
Interest in developing a new method of man-to-machine communication--a brain-computer interface (BCI)--has grown steadily over the past few decades. BCIs create a new communication channel between the brain and an output device by bypassing conventional motor output pathways of nerves and muscles. These systems use signals recorded from the scalp, the(More)
The electroencephalogram (EEG) is modified by motor imagery and can be used by patients with severe motor impairments (e.g., late stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate with their environment. Such a direct connection between the brain and the computer is known as an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI). This paper describes a new type(More)
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during right and left motor imagery can be used to move a cursor to a target on a computer screen. Such an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) can provide a new communication channel to replace an impaired motor function. It can be used by, e.g., patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to develop a simple(More)
This paper describes a research approach to develop a brain-computer interface (BCI) based on recognition of subject-specific EEG patterns. EEG signals recorded from sensorimotor areas during mental imagination of specific movements are classified on-line and used e.g. for cursor control. In a number of on-line experiments, various methods for EEG feature(More)
The Graz-brain-computer interface (BCI) is a cue-based system using the imagery of motor action as the appropriate mental task. Relevant clinical applications of BCI-based systems for control of a virtual keyboard device and operations of a hand orthosis are reported. Additionally, it is demonstrated how information transfer rates of 17 b/min can be(More)
The increase of induced gamma-band responses (iGBRs; oscillations >30 Hz) elicited by familiar (meaningful) objects is well established in electroencephalogram (EEG) research. This frequency-specific change at distinct locations is thought to indicate the dynamic formation of local neuronal assemblies during the activation of cortical object(More)