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Leukocyte traffic through secondary lymphoid tissues is finely tuned by chemokines. We have studied the functional properties of a human T cell subset marked by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5(+) and migrate in response to the B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively(More)
BACKGROUND The envelope protein from multiple sclerosis (MS) associated retroviral element (MSRV), a member of the Human Endogenous Retroviral family 'W' (HERV-W), induces dysimmunity and inflammation. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to confirm and specify the association between HERV-W/MSRV envelope (Env) expression and MS. METHODS 103 MS,(More)
GNbAC1 is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting MSRV-Env, an endogenous retroviral protein, which is expressed in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, is pro-inflammatory and inhibits oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. This paper describes the open-label extension up to 12months of a trial testing GNbAC1 in 10 MS patients at 2 and 6mg/kg. The(More)
Unexpected findings on endogenous retroviral elements expressed in cells from patients with Multiple Sclerosis appear to open a new avenue of research, after years of research dedicated to the understanding of their biological significance in human health and disease. Human endogenous retroviral family W (HERV-W) RNA present in circulating viral particles(More)
Antibody responses against antibodies, such as rheumatoid factors, are found in several immunopathological diseases and may play a role in disease pathogenesis. Experience shows that they are usually difficult to induce experimentally. Antibodies specific for immunoglobulin constant regions (anti-allotypic) or for variable regions (anti-idiotypic) have been(More)
Multiple sclerosis associated retrovirus envelope protein (MSRV-Env) was repeatedly detected in brain lesions and blood of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We performed the first pharmacological characterisation of MSRV-Env on recombinant and native human TLR4. MSRV-Env is a full and highly potent TLR4 agonist of endogenous origin. MSRV-Env induces(More)
OBJECTIVE To monitor the systemic immune responses of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) under treatment with GNbAC1, a monoclonal antibody against the envelope protein of the MS- associated retrovirus, during a phase 2a trial. METHODS We analyzed the composition of immune cell subsets and the activation level of monocytes by flow cytometry and the(More)
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) represent about 8 % of the human genome. Some of these genetic elements are expressed in pathological circumstances. A HERV protein, the multiple sclerosis–associated retrovirus (MSRV) envelope protein (MSRV-Env), is expressed in the blood and active brain lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. It possesses(More)
The concept of using " magic bullets " in the fight against infectious diseases was originally proposed by Paul Ehrlich, one of the founding fathers of immunology and of the basis of anti-infective therapy [1]. These " magic " compounds should have been able to target microbes without harming the infected host. Actually, this concept is the mainstay of(More)
Endogenous retroviruses in the human DNA probably result from an exogenous infection of germ line cells. ERV-W family has been determined to have entered the mam-malian genome after the speciation of old world monkeys , with initial insertion in Catarrhines about 25 million years ago (Voisset et al., 1999). ERV-W copies are present in old world monkeys,(More)