Alma Zernecke

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The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a critical role in inflammatory diseases and atherogenesis. We identify the chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4 as functional receptors for MIF. MIF triggered Gαi- and integrin-dependent arrest and chemotaxis of monocytes and T cells, rapid integrin activation and calcium influx through CXCR2(More)
Apoptosis is a pivotal process in embryogenesis and postnatal cell homeostasis and involves the shedding of membranous microvesicles termed apoptotic bodies. In response to tissue damage, the CXC chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 counteract apoptosis and recruit progenitor cells. Here, we show that endothelial cell-derived apoptotic bodies are(More)
Inflammatory recruitment of leukocytes is governed by dynamic interactions between integrins and endothelial immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins. We have identified the IgSF member junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM-1) as a ligand of the β2 integrin lymphocyte function–associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). Under static and physiological flow conditions,(More)
Chronic inflammation drives the development of atherosclerosis, and details regarding the involvement of different leukocyte subpopulations in the pathology of this disease have recently emerged. This Review highlights the surprising contribution of granulocyte subsets and mast cells to early atherogenesis and subsequent plaque instability, and describes(More)
BACKGROUND Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C(+) monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation has been closely linked to auto-immunogenic processes in atherosclerosis. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are specialized to produce type-I interferons in response to pathogenic single-stranded nucleic acids, but can also sense self-DNA released from dying cells or in neutrophil extracellular traps complexed to the antimicrobial(More)
The fundamental importance of chemokines for atherogenesis, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques is now widely appreciated, but the degree of complexity, specificity, and cooperativity harnessed by these signal molecules to govern atherogenic cell recruitment and homeostasis is still being refined. Since the role of chemokines in(More)
CX(3)CR1 is a chemokine receptor with a single ligand, the membrane-tethered chemokine CX(3)CL1 (fractalkine). All blood monocytes express CX(3)CR1, but its levels differ between the main 2 subsets, with human CD16(+) and murine Gr1(low) monocytes being CX(3)CR1(hi). Here, we report that absence of either CX(3)CR1 or CX(3)CL1 results in a significant(More)
Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic inflammation of the arterial wall due to chemokine-driven mononuclear cell recruitment. Activated platelets can synergize with chemokines to exacerbate atherogenesis; for example, by deposition of the chemokines platelet factor-4 (PF4, also known as CXCL4) and RANTES (CCL5), triggering monocyte arrest on inflamed(More)
The CXC ligand (CXCL)12/CXC receptor (CXCR)4 chemokine-receptor axis controls hematopoiesis, organ development, and angiogenesis, but its role in the inflammatory pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is unknown. Here we show that interference with Cxcl12/Cxcr4 by a small-molecule antagonist, genetic Cxcr4 deficiency, or lentiviral transduction with Cxcr4(More)