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Approximately 90 per cent of the world's power is generated by heat engines that use fossil fuel combustion as a heat source and typically operate at 30-40 per cent efficiency, such that roughly 15 terawatts of heat is lost to the environment. Thermoelectric modules could potentially convert part of this low-grade waste heat to electricity. Their efficiency(More)
Biofilms are communities of cells held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix typically consisting of protein, exopolysaccharide, and often DNA. A natural signal for biofilm disassembly in Bacillus subtilis is certain D-amino acids, which are incorporated into the peptidoglycan and trigger the release of the protein component of the matrix.(More)
Surface-associated bacteria typically form self-organizing communities called biofilms. Spatial segregation is important for various bacterial processes associated with cellular and community development. Here, we demonstrate bacterial ordering and oriented attachment on the single-cell level induced by nanometer-scale periodic surface features. These(More)
Silicon nanowires were synthesized, in a controlled manner, for their practical integration into devices. Gold colloids were used for nanowire synthesis by the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Using SiCl4 as the precursor gas in a chemical vapor deposition system, nanowire arrays were grown vertically aligned with respect to the substrate. By(More)
Silicon nanowires have received considerable attention as transistor components because they represent a facile route toward sub-100-nm single-crystalline Si features. Herein we demonstrate the direct vertical integration of Si nanowire arrays into surrounding gate field effect transistors without the need for postgrowth nanowire assembly processes. The(More)
The precursor formamide 1 was employed instead of the monomer 2 because isocyanides are relatively unstable in air at room temperature. [19] a) [20] Molecular modeling shows that (in common with the phenyl benzo-ate compounds previously described [17]) an angle exists between the planar phenoxy and TTF ring systems. [21] The oxidation of the polymer was(More)
Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron(More)
Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this(More)
Thermoelectricity is the phenomenon of conversion between thermal and electrical energy. Compared with other technologies, thermoelectric (TE) devices offer distinct advantages: they have no moving parts, contain no chlorofluorocar-bons, and have a long lifetime of reliable operation. However, current TE materials have found limited commercial application(More)