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Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality in westernized countries, despite optimum medical therapy to reduce the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-associated cholesterol. The pursuit of novel therapies to target the residual risk has focused on raising the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated cholesterol in order to(More)
Circulating levels of the gut microbe-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) have recently been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Here, we performed transcriptional profiling in mouse models of altered reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and serendipitously identified the TMAO-generating enzyme flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) as a(More)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes pleotropic effects in mammalian species through modulating gene expression. Here we analyzed TCDD-induced mRNA expression by using mRNA differential display and report the cloning of a novel TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (TiPARP). TiPARP cDNA contains an open reading frame of 657 amino acid(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the intestine may play a direct facilitative role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), independent of hepatobiliary secretion. In order to understand the nonbiliary pathway for RCT, we created both genetic and surgical models of biliary cholesterol insufficiency. To genetically inhibit biliary cholesterol secretion, we(More)
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. It also is associated with platelet hyperactivity, which increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which hypercholesterolemia produces a procoagulant state remain undefined. Atherosclerosis is associated with accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins(More)
BACKGROUND More than one-quarter of Americans have hypercholesterolemia and/or are being treated with cholesterol-lowering medications. Given the systemic nature of hypercholesterolemia and remaining questions regarding its effect on tendons at a local level, we sought to assess the utility of small versus large animal model systems for translational(More)
The LXR-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL controls LDLR receptor stability independent of SREBP and PCSK9, but its relevance to plasma lipid levels is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effects of the LXR-IDOL axis are both tissue and species specific. In mice, LXR agonist induces Idol transcript levels in peripheral tissues but not in liver, and does(More)
Genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake are transcriptionally regulated in response to cellular sterol content in a coordinated manner. A number of these genes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and LDL receptor (LDLR), undergo alternative splicing, resulting in reductions of enzyme or protein activity. Here we(More)
Plant sterols, or phytosterols, are very similar in structure to cholesterol and are abundant in typical diets. The reason for poor absorption of plant sterols by the body is still unknown. Mutations in the ABC transporters G5 and G8 are known to cause an accumulation of plant sterols in blood and tissues (sitosterolemia). To determine the significance of(More)
Using directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis, we have isolated a highly thermostable variant of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase (GA), designated CR2-1. CR2-1 includes the previously described mutations Asn20Cys and Ala27Cys (forming a new disulfide bond), Ser30Pro, Thr62Ala, Ser119Pro, Gly137Ala, Thr290Ala, His391Tyr and Ser436Pro. In addition,(More)