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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nucleotide noncoding RNAs produced by Dicer-catalyzed excision from stem-loop precursors. Many plant miRNAs play critical roles in development, nutrient homeostasis, abiotic stress responses, and pathogen responses via interactions with specific target mRNAs. miRNAs are not the only Dicer-derived small RNAs produced(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nucleotide (nt) RNAs that regulate gene expression in plants and animals. Most known plant miRNAs target transcription factors that influence cell fate determination, and biological functions of miRNA-directed regulation have been reported for four of 15 known microRNA gene families: miR172, miR159, miR165,(More)
The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles during plant growth, many of which are mediated by the auxin response transcription factor (ARF) family. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous 21-nucleotide riboregulators, target several mRNAs implicated in auxin responses. miR160 targets ARF10, ARF16, and ARF17, three of the 23 Arabidopsis thaliana ARF genes. Here, we(More)
Gene silencing is an important but little understood regulatory mechanism in plants. Here we report that a viral sequence, initially identified as a mediator of synergistic viral disease, acts to suppress the establishment of both transgene-induced and virus-induced posttranscriptional gene silencing. The viral suppressor of silencing comprises the(More)
Arabidopsis encodes four DICER-like (DCL) proteins. DCL1 produces miRNAs, DCL2 produces some virus-derived siRNAs, and DCL3 produces endogenous RDR2-dependent siRNAs, but the role of DCL4 is unknown. We show that DCL4 is the primary processor of endogenous RDR6-dependent trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs). Molecular and phenotypic analyses of all dcl double(More)
Here we describe a set of endogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in Arabidopsis, some of which direct the cleavage of endogenous mRNAs. These siRNAs correspond to both sense and antisense strands of a noncoding RNA (At2g27400) that apparently is converted to double-stranded RNA and then processed in 21 nt increments. These siRNAs differ from previously(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression by directing mRNA degradation or inhibiting productive translation. Dominant mutations in PHABULOSA (PHB) and PHAVOLUTA (PHV) map to a miR165/166 complementary site and impair miRNA-guided cleavage of these mRNAs in vitro. Here, we confirm that disrupted(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), 20- to 27-nt in length, are essential regulatory molecules that act as sequence-specific guides in several processes in most eukaryotes (with the notable exception of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae). These processes include DNA elimination, heterochromatin assembly, mRNA cleavage and translational(More)
Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that is widespread in eukaryotic organisms. It is often associated with methylation of the transcribed region of the silenced gene and with accumulation of small RNAs (21 to 25 nucleotides) homologous to the silenced gene. In plants, PTGS can be triggered locally and(More)
Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is an ancient eukaryotic regulatory mechanism in which a particular RNA sequence is targeted and destroyed. The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of plant potyviruses suppresses PTGS in plants. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a calmodulin-related protein (termed rgs-CaM) that interacts with HC-Pro.(More)