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We investigated the effects of chronic nicotine on alpha6- and beta3-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in two rat brain regions using three methodological approaches: radioligand binding, immunoprecipitation, and nicotine-stimulated synaptosomal release of dopamine. Nicotine was administered by osmotic minipumps for 2 weeks. Quantitative(More)
Adolescence is a time of significant brain development, and exposure to nicotine during this period is associated with higher subsequent rates of dependence. Chronic nicotine exposure alters expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), changing the pattern of nicotine responsiveness. We used quantitative autoradiography to measure three major(More)
Nicotinic receptors play an important role in modulating the activity of parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the medulla. Previous work has shown nicotine acts via at least three mechanisms to excite brain stem premotor cardiac vagal neurons. Nicotine evokes a direct increase in holding current and facilitates both the frequency and amplitude of(More)
Post-stroke cognitive impairment has a high prevalence in stroke patients and is associated with poor short and long term outcomes, including a negative impact on functional recovery. There is evidence that post-stroke impairment is the direct result of stroke induced neurological injury. Gray matter atrophy has been implicated in the development of(More)
We examined for immediate and persistent changes in nAChRs in cerebral cortex, thalamus and striatum of male rats caused by prenatal exposure to nicotine from gestational day 3 to postnatal day 10 (PN10), and how such exposure affected the responses of adolescents to subsequent nicotine challenge. Receptor numbers were assessed by [(3)H]epibatidine binding(More)
Heart rate increases during inspiration and slows during postinspiration; this respiratory sinus arrhythmia helps match pulmonary blood flow to lung inflation and maintain an appropriate diffusion gradient of oxygen in the lungs. This cardiorespiratory pattern is found in neonatal and adult humans, baboons, dogs, rabbits, and seals. Respiratory sinus(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and higher concentrations of several kynurenine metabolites have been observed post-stroke, where they have been associated with increased mortality. While lower tryptophan or a higher ratio of kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) in peripheral blood have been associated with dementia and the severity of(More)
Fentanyl citrate is a synthetic opiate analgesic often used clinically for neonatal anesthesia. Although fentanyl significantly depresses heart rate, the mechanism of inducing bradycardia remains unclear. One possible site of action is the cardioinhibitory parasympathetic vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA), from which originates control of heart(More)
BACKGROUND Although it is well recognized that anesthetics modulate the central control of cardiorespiratory homeostasis, the cellular mechanisms by which anesthetics alter cardiac parasympathetic activity are poorly understood. One common site of action of anesthetics is inhibitory neurotransmission. This study investigates the effect of propofol on(More)
Both enkephalin and dynorphin containing fibers are in close proximity to neurons in the nucleus ambiguus, including cardiac vagal neurons. Microinjection of Delta and kappa agonists into the nucleus ambiguus have been shown to evoke decreases in heart rate. Yet little is known about the mechanisms by which Delta and kappa opioid receptors alter the(More)