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INTRODUCTION The use of intrathecal (IT) infusion of analgesic medications to treat patients with chronic refractory pain has increased since its inception in the 1980s, and the need for clinical(More)
Background.  Expert panels of physicians and nonphysicians in the field of intrathecal therapies convened in 2000 and 2003 to make recommendations for the rational use of intrathecal analgesics based(More)
INTRODUCTION The International Neuromodulation Society (INS) has determined that there is a need for guidance regarding safety and risk reduction for implantable neurostimulation devices. The INS(More)
INTRODUCTION The Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) of the International Neuromodulation Society (INS) evaluated evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of neurostimulation(More)
INTRODUCTION Targeted intrathecal drug infusion to treat moderate to severe chronic pain has become a standard part of treatment algorithms when more conservative options fail. This therapy is well(More)
INTRODUCTION Trialing for intrathecal pump placement is an essential part of the decision-making process in placing a permanent device. In both the United States and the international community, the(More)