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Chitinases are ubiquitous chitin-fragmenting hydrolases. Recently we discovered the first human chitinase, named chitotriosidase, that is specifically expressed by phagocytes. We here report the identification, purification, and subsequent cloning of a second mammalian chitinase. This enzyme is characterized by an acidic isoelectric point and therefore(More)
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) is the key steroidogenic enzyme responsible for conversion of androgens to estrogens which play a critical role in developmental sex differentiation and adult reproductive cycles in vertebrates. To evaluate the potential roles of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) on reproductive physiology of fish, the influence of(More)
Oxidative stress occurs when the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds the capacity of the cell's endogenous systems to neutralize them. Our analyses of the cellular damage and oxidative stress responses of the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) revealed a critical role played by nonenzymatic antioxidant(More)
Modulation of gut function is important in an ecological and evolutionary context because it likely determines what food items an animal can and cannot eat. We examined how diet affects activity of digestive enzymes in an omnivorous bird, the pine warbler (Dendroica pinus). Pine warblers were fed insect-based, fruit-based, and seed-based diets for(More)
The gene that codes for Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase EC 1.1.1.1) was identified in a bacteriophage lambda library of genomic Drosophila DNA by using ADH cDNA cloned DNA as a probe. The DNA sequence of the protein encoding region was shown to be in agreement with the amino acid sequence of the ADH. Two intervening DNA(More)
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) is the terminal enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway that converts androgens (e.g., testosterone) into estrogens (e.g., estradiol). Regulation of this gene dictates the ratio of androgens to estrogens; therefore, appropriate expression of this enzyme is critical for reproduction as well as being pivotal in sex(More)
This report describes the structure of the 5'-flanking regions of both the CYP19A1 and A2 genes that were isolated from the genome of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Consensus sequences of three cAMP-responsive elements (CRE), an aryl hydrocarbon-responsive element (AhR/Arnt), a steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) site, and a TATA box were observed in the(More)
Dinoflagellate genomes present unique challenges including large size, modified DNA bases, lack of nucleosomes, and condensed chromosomes. EST sequencing has shown that many genes are found as many slightly different variants implying that many copies are present in the genome. As a preliminary survey of the genome our goal was to obtain genomic sequences(More)
Fatty acid composition of body fat in birds often differs between bird species and between seasons, and changes in diet may be responsible for this variation. We tested two related hypotheses using Red-eyed Vireos, a long-distance migratory songbird: (1) birds prefer diets with certain fatty acids, and (2) fatty acid composition of the diet primarily(More)
Larval striped bass (M. saxatilis), tissue docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (AA) acids levels were modulated through dietary enrichments and the effect on growth and survivorship examined. Mean growth was significantly greater in larvae enriched with AA than in larvae enriched with DHA (F-value for AA treatment was 20.5 versus only 5.1 for the DHA(More)