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Chitinases are ubiquitous chitin-fragmenting hydrolases. Recently we discovered the first human chitinase, named chitotriosidase, that is specifically expressed by phagocytes. We here report the identification, purification, and subsequent cloning of a second mammalian chitinase. This enzyme is characterized by an acidic isoelectric point and therefore(More)
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) is the key steroidogenic enzyme responsible for conversion of androgens to estrogens which play a critical role in developmental sex differentiation and adult reproductive cycles in vertebrates. To evaluate the potential roles of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) on reproductive physiology of fish, the influence of(More)
Dinoflagellate genomes present unique challenges including large size, modified DNA bases, lack of nucleosomes, and condensed chromosomes. EST sequencing has shown that many genes are found as many slightly different variants implying that many copies are present in the genome. As a preliminary survey of the genome our goal was to obtain genomic sequences(More)
Oxidative stress occurs when the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds the capacity of the cell's endogenous systems to neutralize them. Our analyses of the cellular damage and oxidative stress responses of the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) revealed a critical role played by nonenzymatic antioxidant(More)
Modulation of gut function is important in an ecological and evolutionary context because it likely determines what food items an animal can and cannot eat. We examined how diet affects activity of digestive enzymes in an omnivorous bird, the pine warbler (Dendroica pinus). Pine warblers were fed insect-based, fruit-based, and seed-based diets for(More)
Natural populations of Fundulus heteroclitus show extensive spatial variation in gene frequencies at four unlinked polymorphic loci. Large clinal changes in gene frequencies were found for Ldh-B, Mdh-A, and Gpi-B, whereas the spatial variation for the Pgm-B locus was small. Since the geographical area over which these clines are found is characterized by a(More)
The Nannochloropsis genus contains oleaginous microalgae that have served as model systems for developing renewable biodiesel. Recent genomic and transcriptomic studies on Nannochloropsis species have provided insights into the regulation of lipid production in response to nitrogen stress. Previous studies have focused on the responses of Nannochloropsis(More)
Sex determination in egg-laying amniotes may be fundamentally different from that of placental mammals. The mammalian ovary differentiates normally in the absence of estrogen, whereas estrogen seems to be crucial for proper ovarian development in birds, reptiles, and lower vertebrates. Estrogens are produced normally by the biosynthetic conversion of(More)
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) is the terminal enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway that converts androgens (e.g., testosterone) into estrogens (e.g., estradiol). Regulation of this gene dictates the ratio of androgens to estrogens; therefore, appropriate expression of this enzyme is critical for reproduction as well as being pivotal in sex(More)
Estradiol plays a key role in the control of many behavioral and physiological aspects of reproduction therefore the expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is of vital interest. The zebrafish, and many other teleosts, have two aromatase genes (CYP19A1 and CYP19A2) that are(More)