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Dinoflagellate genomes present unique challenges including large size, modified DNA bases, lack of nucleosomes, and condensed chromosomes. EST sequencing has shown that many genes are found as many slightly different variants implying that many copies are present in the genome. As a preliminary survey of the genome our goal was to obtain genomic sequences(More)
Sequential hermaphroditism is a common reproductive strategy in many teleosts. Steroid production is known to mediate both the natural and induced sex change, yet beyond this the physiology directing this process has received little attention. Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key enzyme in the hormonal pathway catalysing the conversion of sex steroids,(More)
The greatest diversity of eukaryotic species is within the microbial eukaryotes, the protists, with plants and fungi/metazoa representing just two of the estimated seventy five lineages of eukaryotes. Protists are a diverse group characterized by unusual genome features and a wide range of genome sizes from 8.2 Mb in the apicomplexan parasite Babesia bovis(More)
The shallow depth of field of conventional microscopy hampers analyses of 3D swimming behavior of fast dinoflagellates, whose motility influences macroassemblages of these cells into often-observed dense "blooms." The present analysis of cinematic digital holographic microscopy data enables simultaneous tracking and characterization of swimming of thousands(More)
Toxins produced by the harmful algal bloom (HAB) forming, mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum have long been associated with fish kills. To date, the perceived ecological role for toxins has been relief from grazing pressures. Here, we demonstrate that karlotoxins also serve as a predation instrument. Using high-speed holographic microscopy, we(More)
Fogel and Hastings first hypothesized the existence of voltage-gated proton channels in 1972 in bioluminescent dinoflagellates, where they were thought to trigger the flash by activating luciferase. Proton channel genes were subsequently identified in human, mouse, and Ciona intestinalis, but their existence in dinoflagellates remained unconfirmed. We(More)
In the diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin, males hatch at incubation temperatures below 28 degrees C whereas females hatch at temperatures above 30 degrees C. When estrogen is applied to the eggs at male temperatures early in development, females are produced. These data suggest that the enzyme necessary for estrogen synthesis (CYP19, aromatase) in(More)
Endogenous microbiota play essential roles in the host's immune system, physiology, reproduction and nutrient metabolism. We hypothesized that a continuous administration of an exogenous probiotic might also influence the host's development. Thus, we treated zebrafish from birth to sexual maturation (2-months treatment) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a(More)
VIDEO ABSTRACT Stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimp, are renowned for their complex visual systems. Their array of 16 types of photoreceptors provides complex color reception, as well as linear and circular polarization sensitivity [1-6]. The least-understood components of their retina are the UV receptors, of which there are up to six distinct,(More)