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Dinoflagellate genomes present unique challenges including large size, modified DNA bases, lack of nucleosomes, and condensed chromosomes. EST sequencing has shown that many genes are found as many slightly different variants implying that many copies are present in the genome. As a preliminary survey of the genome our goal was to obtain genomic sequences(More)
Fatty acid composition of body fat in birds often differs between bird species and between seasons, and changes in diet may be responsible for this variation. We tested two related hypotheses using Red-eyed Vireos, a long-distance migratory songbird: (1) birds prefer diets with certain fatty acids, and (2) fatty acid composition of the diet primarily(More)
Sequential hermaphroditism is a common reproductive strategy in many teleosts. Steroid production is known to mediate both the natural and induced sex change, yet beyond this the physiology directing this process has received little attention. Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key enzyme in the hormonal pathway catalysing the conversion of sex steroids,(More)
The greatest diversity of eukaryotic species is within the microbial eukaryotes, the protists, with plants and fungi/metazoa representing just two of the estimated seventy five lineages of eukaryotes. Protists are a diverse group characterized by unusual genome features and a wide range of genome sizes from 8.2 Mb in the apicomplexan parasite Babesia bovis(More)
Most migrating birds accumulate lipid stores as their primary source of energy for fueling long distance flights. Lipid stores of birds during migration are composed of mostly unsaturated fatty acids; whether such a fatty acid composition enhances exercise performance of birds is unknown. We tested this hypothesis by measuring metabolic rate at rest and(More)
The shallow depth of field of conventional microscopy hampers analyses of 3D swimming behavior of fast dinoflagellates, whose motility influences macroassemblages of these cells into often-observed dense "blooms." The present analysis of cinematic digital holographic microscopy data enables simultaneous tracking and characterization of swimming of thousands(More)
In all species of crocodilians, sex is determined not by genetic mechanisms, but by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. In the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) the thermosensitive period (TSP) for sex determination is a 7- to 10-day window within stages 21-24 of development, around the middle third of the incubation period.(More)
Toxins produced by the harmful algal bloom (HAB) forming, mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum have long been associated with fish kills. To date, the perceived ecological role for toxins has been relief from grazing pressures. Here, we demonstrate that karlotoxins also serve as a predation instrument. Using high-speed holographic microscopy, we(More)
Fogel and Hastings first hypothesized the existence of voltage-gated proton channels in 1972 in bioluminescent dinoflagellates, where they were thought to trigger the flash by activating luciferase. Proton channel genes were subsequently identified in human, mouse, and Ciona intestinalis, but their existence in dinoflagellates remained unconfirmed. We(More)
Endogenous microbiota play essential roles in the host's immune system, physiology, reproduction and nutrient metabolism. We hypothesized that a continuous administration of an exogenous probiotic might also influence the host's development. Thus, we treated zebrafish from birth to sexual maturation (2-months treatment) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a(More)