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Squares receive higher category ratings when the smaller sizes are presented more frequently than the larger sizes. This shift in the rating scale is greater when there are either fewer categories (the Category Effect) or more stimuli. Similar shifts were obtained whether the stimuli were presented successively for judgment or simultaneously. The Category(More)
Two experiments explored methods for standardizing ratings of the psychopathology of clinical case histories. In both experiments, the same case histories were rated as more pathological when mostly mild rather than severe cases were presented as the immediate context. Psychometric analyses demonstrated that this type of contextual effect is a potentially(More)
More than two-thirds of an unselected sample of 34 college students reported mild headaches when told that a (nonexistent) electric current was passing through their heads. These reports appeared independent of whether the instructions emphasized the headache-producing effect of the current or whether the emphasis was on a perceptual task, with headache as(More)
Three experiments demonstrated the applicability of a range-frequency analysis to social judgments. Subjects rated the happiness of either (a) schematic drawings of faces or (b) life events as expressed in short verbal descriptions. The relative frequency of these stimuli was manipulated experimentally, as was the number of rating categories. Consistent(More)
We are grateful to three anonymous referees for extremely valuable suggestions. The first version of this paper was written in 2002. Opinions in this article are those of individual authors only; they do not necessarily reflect views or policies of Watson Wyatt. For helpful suggestions, we thank Dick Easterlin, Abstract How do workers make wage comparisons?(More)
Systematic manipulation of the context for category ratings of psychophysical stimuli has isolated two dominating factors: 1) the range of contextual stimuli, and 2) the relative frequencies of stimuli within this range. The effects of these two factors upon the rating or judgment of any particular stimulus can be described as a weighted average between the(More)
Consider the following experimental demonstration: when undergraduate volunteers judged the pleasantness of winning small amounts of money (from 1 to 30 cents per trial), their successive ratings reflected the position of each winning in the frequency distribution of their other winnings (Parducci, 1968). Table 1 shows how the different distributions were(More)
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