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PURPOSE Expression profiling studies classified breast carcinomas into estrogen receptor (ER)+/luminal, normal breast-like, HER2 overexpressing, and basal-like groups, with the latter two associated with poor outcomes. Currently, there exist clinical assays that identify ER+/luminal and HER2-overexpressing tumors, and we sought to develop a clinical assay(More)
Increased expression of "muscle-specific" actin can be correlated with mesangial cell injury and proliferation in the rat. We performed similar immunohistochemical studies using two monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to "muscle-specific" actins (HHF-35, a MoAb to pan muscle actin and alpha-SM-1, a MoAb to alpha-smooth muscle actin) on methyl Carnoy's fixed human(More)
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are growth-regulatory molecules that stimulate chemotaxis, proliferation, and increased metabolism of primarily connective tissue cells. In a survey of normal tissues, we found specific immunostaining for PDGF B-chain in neurons, principal dendrites, some axons, and probable terminals throughout the brain, in the(More)
Lesions of atherosclerosis occur in the innermost layer of the artery wall and consist primarily of proliferated smooth muscle cells surrounded by large amounts of connective tissue, numerous lipid-laden macrophages, and varying numbers of lymphocytes. Growth-regulatory molecules may be involved in intimal accumulation and proliferation of smooth muscle(More)
Simultaneous detection of two different antigens on paraffin-embedded and frozen tissues can be accomplished by double immunohistochemistry. However, many double chromogen systems suffer from signal overlap, precluding definite signal quantification. To separate and quantitatively analyze the different chromogens, we imported images into a Macintosh(More)
In an effort to optimize immunocytochemical methods to evaluate cell kinetics in brain tumors, we studied two newly-developed antibodies which react with formalin resistant epitopes of Proliferating Cellular Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67. These results were compared with standard flow cytometric cell cycle data from the same tumor specimens to determine(More)
BACKGROUND Estrogen receptor (ER) expression is routinely assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in breast carcinoma. Our study compares visual scoring of ER in invasive breast cancer by histopathologists to quantitation of staining using a fully automated system. MATERIALS AND METHODS A tissue microarray was constructed from 4,049 cases (3,484 included(More)
Although recombinant adenovirus vectors offer a very efficient means by which to transfer genetic information into cells in vivo, antigen-dependent immunity limits the duration of gene expression and prevents retreatment. Recombinant mu-rine CTLA4Ig and anti-CD40 ligand antibody block costimulatory interactions between T cells and antigen presenting cells.(More)
Injection of chicken gizzard actin into BALB/c mice resulted in the isolation of a smooth muscle-specific monoclonal antibody designated CGA7. When assayed on methanol-Carnoy's fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, it bound to smooth muscle cells and myoepithelial cells, but failed to decorate striated muscle, endothelium, connective tissue, epithelium, or(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical and histologic appearance of fibrosis in cutaneous lesions in chronic graft-versus -host disease (c-GVHD) resembles the appearance of fibrosis in scleroderma (SSc). Recent studies identified distinctive structural changes in the superficial dermal microvasculature and matrix of SSc skin. We compared the dermal microvasculature in(More)