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PURPOSE Expression profiling studies classified breast carcinomas into estrogen receptor (ER)+/luminal, normal breast-like, HER2 overexpressing, and basal-like groups, with the latter two associated with poor outcomes. Currently, there exist clinical assays that identify ER+/luminal and HER2-overexpressing tumors, and we sought to develop a clinical assay(More)
Haemophilia B, or factor IX deficiency, is a X-linked recessive disorder that occurs in about one in 25,000 males, and severely affected people are at risk for spontaneous bleeding into numerous organs. Bleeding can be life-threatening or lead to chronic disabilities with haemophilic arthropathy. The severity of the bleeding tendency varies among patients(More)
The benefit of quantifying estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in breast cancer is well established. However, in routine breast cancer diagnosis, receptor expression is often quantified in arbitrary scores with high inter- and intraobserver variability. In this study we tested the validity of an image analysis system employing(More)
PURPOSE Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2) is associated with a poorer outcome in node-positive breast cancer, but the results are conflicting in node-negative disease. This study assessed the prognostic impact of HER2 overexpression/amplification in a large series of node-negative breast cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS A tissue microarray(More)
The development of cancer is the result of a series of molecular changes occurring in the cell. These events lead to changes in the expression level of numerous genes that result in different phenotypic characteristics of tumors. In this report we describe the assembly and utilization of a 5766 member cDNA microarray to study the differences in gene(More)
BACKGROUND In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation using the marker Ki67 has potential use in both research and clinical management. However, lack of consistency across laboratories has limited Ki67's value. A working group was assembled to devise a strategy to harmonize Ki67 analysis and increase scoring concordance. Toward that(More)
Increased expression of "muscle-specific" actin can be correlated with mesangial cell injury and proliferation in the rat. We performed similar immunohistochemical studies using two monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to "muscle-specific" actins (HHF-35, a MoAb to pan muscle actin and alpha-SM-1, a MoAb to alpha-smooth muscle actin) on methyl Carnoy's fixed human(More)
Apoptosis has gained central importance in the study of many biological processes, including neoplasia, neurodegenerative diseases, and development. One of the limitations of many studies is the difficulty of specifically identifying individual apoptotic cells. Of the many specific methods developed to detect apoptotic cells, most are not applicable to(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the specificity of the HercepTest for Immunoenzymatic Staining (Dako Corp, Carpinteria, CA) for determining HER-2/neu protein expression in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-eight invasive breast cancers previously found to be HER-2/neu-negative by two different immunohistochemical (IHC) assays and not amplified for the(More)
p63 is a recently discovered member of the p53 family that has been shown to be important in the development of epithelial tissues. p63 may also play a role in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, head and neck, and cervix, and its expression is increased in these tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of p63 in a broad(More)