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The ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that couple adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to the translocation of diverse substrates across cell membranes. Clinically relevant examples are associated with cystic fibrosis and with multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells. Here, we report the crystal structure at 3.2(More)
Bacterial binding protein-dependent ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters facilitate uptake of essential nutrients. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli BtuF, the protein that binds vitamin B12 and delivers it to the periplasmic surface of the ABC transporter BtuCD, reveals a bi-lobed fold resembling that of the ferrichrome binding protein FhuD. B12(More)
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins that translocate a diverse array of substrates across cell membranes. We present here the dynamics of complex formation of three structurally characterized ABC transporters-the BtuCD vitamin B(12) importer and MetNI d/l-methionine importer from Escherichia coli and the Hi1470/1(More)
Agent-based modelling has become an increasingly important tool for scholars studying social and social-ecological systems, but there are no community standards on describing, implementing, testing and teaching these tools. This paper reports on the establishment of the Open Agent-Based Modelling Consortium, www.openabm.org, a community effort to foster the(More)
Experimental data from a spatially explicit dynamic commons dilemma experiment is used to empirically ground an agent-based model. Four distinct patterns are identified in the data. Two naïve models, random walk and greedy agents, do not match the patterns. A more comprehensive model is presented that explains how agents make movement and harvest decisions.(More)
Geographically distributed workgroups are increasingly collaborating on time-sensitive, highly interdependent tasks that require detailed coordination to achieve success; although success under these conditions is often difficult. Improving these collaborations requires both better support from communication and information tools and a better understanding(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate head, pelvic, and limb movement to detect lameness in galloping horses. ANIMALS 12 Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES Movement data were collected with inertial sensors mounted on the head, pelvis, and limbs of horses trotting and galloping in a straight line before and after induction of forelimb and hind limb lameness by use of sole pressure.(More)
Various manufacturing techniques exist to produce double-curvature shells, including injection, rotational and blow molding, as well as dip coating. However, these industrial processes are typically geared for mass production and are not directly applicable to laboratory research settings, where adaptable, inexpensive and predictable prototyping tools are(More)