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We investigated physiological characters associated with water balance in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster selected for resistance to desiccating conditions for over 100 generations. Five replicate, outbred, desiccation-selected (D) populations were compared with their control (C) populations. Water loss rates of female D flies were(More)
Fruit flies of the genus Drosophila have independently invaded deserts around the world on numerous occasions. To understand the physiological mechanisms allowing these small organisms to survive and thrive in arid environments, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of water balance in Drosophila species from different habitats. Desert (cactophilic) species(More)
Energy availability can limit the ability of organisms to survive under stressful conditions. In Drosophila, laboratory experiments have revealed that energy storage patterns differ between populations selected for desiccation and starvation. This suggests that flies may use different sources of energy when exposed to these stresses, but the actual(More)
Environments that are crowded with larvae of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, exhibit a temporal deterioration in quality as waste products accumulate and food is depleted. We show that natural selection in these environments can maintain a genetic polymorphism with one group of genotypes specializing on the early part of the environment and a second(More)
  • A G Gibbs
  • 1999
An increasingly popular experimental approach in comparative physiology is to study the evolution of physiological traits in the laboratory, using microbial, invertebrate and vertebrate models. Because selective conditions are well-defined, selected populations can be replicated and unselected control populations are available for direct comparison, strong(More)
Many adult and diapausing pupal insects exchange respiratory gases discontinuously in a three-phase discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). We summarize the known biophysical characteristics of the DGC and describe current research on the role of convection and diffusion in the DGC, emphasizing control of respiratory water loss. We summarize the main(More)
The desert fruit fly Drosophila mojavensis experiences environmental conditions of high temperature and low humidity. To understand the physiological mechanisms allowing these small insects to survive in such stressful conditions, we studied the effects of thermal acclimation on cuticular lipids and rates of water loss of adult D. mojavensis. Mean(More)
1. We characterized year-round microclimate conditions (temperature and humidity) in and around necrotic cacti of the Sonoran Desert of southwestern North America. Necrotic cacti serve as host plants for four endemic species of Drosophila. 2. Flies in the field were exposed to high and variable temperatures, sometimes ranging between o5 C to >40 C in a(More)
Insects breathe through valved openings (spiracles) in their cuticle. Many insects open and close their spiracles in a cyclic pattern (discontinuous gas-exchange cycles, or DGC). These cycles were observed over half a century ago, their hypothesized function being to minimize loss of water from the tracheal system. However, numerous recent studies have(More)