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Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of corn smut disease, acquires and transports ferric ion by producing the extracellular, cyclic peptide, hydroxamate siderophores ferrichrome and ferrichrome A. Ferrichrome biosynthesis likely proceeds by hydroxylation and acetylation of L-ornithine, and later steps likely involve covalently bound thioester intermediates on(More)
Iron uptake in Ustilago maydis is mediated by production of extracellular hydroxamate siderophores. L-Or-nithine N5-oxygenase catalyzes hydroxylation of L-ornithine, which is the first committed step of ferrichrome and ferrichrome A biosynthesis in U. maydis. We have characterized sid1, a gene coding for this enzyme, by complementation in trans, gene(More)
The activities of the four endoproteinase classes of malted barley are known to vary with pH, and it seemed likely that the cysteine enzyme activities could be altered by redox agents. This study determined how altering the pH and adding redox agents to mashes influenced the worts that were produced during the brewing process. The reducing agents(More)
We report malt quality QTLs relevant to breeding with greater precision than previous mapping studies. The distribution of favorable alleles suggests strategies for marker-assisted breeding and germplasm exchange. This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 barley breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting(More)
The effects of differing cytokinin and auxin concentrations on resistance of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) tissue cultures to race 0 of Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae were examined. With 1 micromolar kinetin and either 11.5 micromolar indoleacetic acid or 1 micromolar 2,4-dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid, tissues from resistant cultivars exhibited a(More)
By using a non-enterobactin-producing enb-7 mutant of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 as a biological indicator, a novel screening method was developed for identifying mutants of Ustilago maydis defective in the biosynthesis of the siderophores ferrichrome and ferrichrome A. Two classes of siderophore mutations, both recessive, were isolated after mutagenesis of(More)
Two siderophores, ferrichrome and ferrichrome A, were found in cultures of Ustilago maydis (DC) Corda. Both siderophores were found intracellularly and extracellularly. Their authenticity was confirmed by thin layer chromatography, HPLC, UV-visible spectrometry, paper electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy.(More)
New cosmid vectors were constructed for the ascomycete fungus, Magnaporthe grisea and the basidiomycete fungus, Ustilago maydis. These vectors are capable of transforming M. grisea at frequencies of up to 5 transformants/micrograms linear DNA and U. maydis at up to 25 transformants/microgram circular DNA for integrative transformation. In addition, 2800(More)
BACKGROUND Advanced cycle breeding utilizes crosses among elite lines and is a successful method to develop new inbreds. However, it results in a reduction in genetic diversity within the breeding population. The development of malting barley varieties requires the adherence to a narrow malting quality profile and thus the use of advanced cycle breeding(More)
The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge. To obtain an understanding of the relationship between(More)