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Besides the involvement of superior temporal regions in processing complex speech sounds, evidence suggests that the motor system might also play a role [1-4]. This suggests that the hearer might perceive speech by simulating the articulatory gestures of the speaker [5, 6]. It is still an open question whether this simulation process is necessary for speech(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Functional brain imaging after stroke offers insight into motor network adaptations. This exploratory study examined whether motor cortical activation captured during arm-focused therapy can predict paretic hand functional gains. METHODS Eight hemiparetic patients had serial functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a pinch task(More)
People all over the world use their hands to communicate expressively. Autonomous gestures, also known as emblems, are highly social in nature, and convey conventionalized meaning without accompanying speech. To study the neural bases of cross-cultural social communication, we used single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to measure(More)
BACKGROUND In Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), the Motor Threshold (MT) is the minimum intensity required to evoke a liminal response in the target muscle. Because the MT reflects cortical excitability, the TMS intensity needs to be adjusted according to the subject's MT at the beginning of every TMS session. OBJECTIVE Shorten the MT estimation(More)
Practice of tasks in an interleaved order generally induces superior learning compared with practicing in a repetitive order, a phenomenon known as the contextual-interference (CI) effect. Increased neural activity during interleaved over repetitive practice has been associated with the beneficial effects of CI. Here, we used psychophysiological interaction(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are promising noninvasive cortical stimulation methods for adjunctive treatment of movement disorders. They avoid surgical risks and provide theoretical advantages of specific neural circuit neuromodulation. Neuromodulatory effects depend on extrinsic(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish normative data on the single-subject variation of resting motor thresholds and silent periods over 10 h using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS Seventeen neurologically normal volunteers aged 18-36 underwent a series of seven TMS sessions conducted over the course of a single 10-h period. During each session, resting(More)
This study examined the effects of visual cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on visual processing and learning. Participants performed a contrast detection task on two consecutive days. Each session consisted of a baseline measurement followed by measurements made during active or sham stimulation. On the first day, one group received(More)
Functional neuroimaging provides insights into the pathogenesis of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and improves our understanding of both established neuromodulatory therapies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and potential ones such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Functional imaging studies can reveal the consequences(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a common tool for the brain mapping of a wide variety of cognitive functions. Because TMS over cortical regions of interest other than motor cortex often does not produce easily observable effects, the ability to calibrate TMS intensity for stimulation over nonmotor regions can be problematic. Previous(More)