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BACKGROUND Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. There is indirect evidence that agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) could reduce macrovascular complications. Our aim, therefore, was to ascertain whether pioglitazone reduces macrovascular morbidity and(More)
BACKGROUND Beta blockers reduce mortality in patients who have chronic heart failure, systolic dysfunction, and are on background treatment with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. We aimed to compare the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on clinical outcome. METHODS In a multicentre, double-blind, and randomised parallel group(More)
Service-Level Agreements (SLAs) mitigate the risks of a service-provision scenario by associating financial penalties with aberrant service behaviour. SLAs are useless if their provisions can be unilaterally ignored by a party without incurring any liability. To avoid this, it is necessary to ensure that each party's conformance to its obligations can be(More)
BACKGROUND A substantial proportion of patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy for myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation have inadequate reperfusion or reocclusion of the infarct-related artery, leading to an increased risk of complications and death. METHODS We enrolled 3491 patients, 18 to 75 years of age, who presented within 12 hours after(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), a beta-blocker is generally added to a regimen containing an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. It is unknown whether beta-blockade as initial therapy may be as useful. METHODS AND RESULTS We randomized 1010 patients with mild to moderate CHF and left ventricular ejection fraction < or(More)
BACKGROUND Antiplatelet therapy is essential treatment for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Current therapies, however, have important limitations affecting their clinical success. Ticagrelor, the first reversible oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, provides faster, greater, and more consistent adenosine diphosphate-receptor inhibition than clopidogrel. The(More)
OBJECTIVES This analysis from the PROactive (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events) study assesses the effects of pioglitazone on mortality and macrovascular morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes and a previous myocardial infarction (MI). BACKGROUND People with type 2 diabetes have an increased incidence of MI compared with(More)
OBJECTIVE PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events (PROactive) enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes and preexisting cardiovascular disease. These patients were at high risk for heart failure, so any therapeutic benefit could potentially be offset by risk of associated heart failure mortality. We analyzed the heart failure cases to(More)
CONTEXT Ranolazine is a novel antianginal agent that reduces ischemia in patients with chronic angina but has not been studied in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and safety of ranolazine during long-term treatment of patients with non-ST-elevation ACS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A randomized,(More)
A three-stage hierarchical model is proposed for two treatment, binary response studies conducted in a number of centres. The approach adopted is Bayesian. Marginal densities for second stage parameters are shown to provide useful summaries both of comparative efficacy and of the heterogeneity of treatment effects across centres. Sensitivity studies of(More)