Allan R Ronald

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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of oral antiretroviral therapy for use as preexposure prophylaxis among HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda. The(More)
OBJECTIVE HIV dementia is an important neurological complication of advanced HIV infection. The use of a cross-cultural screening test to detect HIV dementia within the international community is critical for diagnosing this condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new screening test for HIV dementia, the(More)
The microbial etiology of urinary infections has been regarded as well established and reasonably consistent. Escherichia coli remains the predominant uropathogen (80%) isolated in acute community-acquired uncomplicated infections, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (10% to 15%). Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Proteus species, and enterococci(More)
CONTEXT Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in female sex workers (FSWs) and may enhance susceptibility to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). OBJECTIVE To examine regular antibiotic prophylaxis in FSWs as a strategy for reducing the incidence of bacterial STIs and HIV-1. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
To determine the frequency and risk factors for female to male sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a prospective study was carried out in 422 men who had acquired a sexually transmitted disease (STD) from a group of prostitutes with a prevalence of HIV-1 infection of 85%. The initial seroprevalence of HIV among the men was(More)
Providing health care in sub-Saharan Africa is a complex problem. Recent reports call for more resources to assist in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases that affect this population, but policy makers, clinicians, and the public frequently fail to understand that diagnosis is essential to the prevention and treatment of disease. Access to(More)
BACKGROUND Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can improve cognitive performance in some patients with HIV-associated cognitive impairment in the United States. The effect of HAART on HIV dementia in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate neuropsychological test and functional performance in HIV+ individuals after 3 and 6(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the frequency and associated risk factors of HIV dementia in an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS We systematically sampled 78 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients from an ambulatory HIV clinic. Participants underwent detailed sociodemographic, medical history, functional, neurologic, and neuropsychological evaluations. One hundred(More)
Condom use was assessed after a programme of education about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and a condom distribution programme in a well-characterised prostitute population in Nairobi. Women received their education at group meetings (barazas) and at individual counselling sessions during which they were given the results of serological tests for(More)
In a study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-uninfected African prostitutes, 83 (67%) of 124 seroconverted to HIV-1. Oral contraceptive use (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-8.6; P less than .03), genital ulcers (mean annual episodes, 1.32 +/- 0.55 in seroconverting women vs. 0.48 +/- 0.21 in seronegative women; P less(More)