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The enteric nervous system (ENS) is derived from neural crest cells that migrate along the gastrointestinal tract to form a network of neurons and glia that are essential for regulating intestinal motility. Despite the number of genes known to play essential roles in ENS development, the molecular etiology of congenital disorders affecting this process(More)
The Li-Fraumeni cancer family syndrome is manifested by susceptibility to breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms in children and young adults. The present study utilized clinical follow-up data on 545 members of 24 Li-Fraumeni kindreds living and cancer-free at family ascertainment. Two hypotheses were tested based on a model of autosomal dominant(More)
The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway plays an essential role during gastrointestinal (GI) tract development in vertebrates. In the present study, we use an antibody that recognizes the phosphorylated and activated form of Smad1, 5 and 8 to examine (by immunohistochemistry) the endogenous patterns of BMP signaling pathway activation in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether individuals with situs inversus totalis (SI), a condition in which there is a mirror-image reversal of asymmetric visceral organs, have alterations in brain asymmetries. BACKGROUND The human brain is asymmetric in structure and function. Although correlations between anatomic asymmetries and functional lateralization in(More)
The avian embryo has been an important model system for studying enteric nervous system (ENS) development for over 50 y. Since the initial demonstration in chick embryos that the ENS is derived from the neural crest, investigators have used the avian model to reveal the cellular origins and migratory pathways of enteric neural crest-derived cells, with more(More)
In a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer conducted in three areas of the USA, 484 cases and 2099 controls were interviewed to evaluate the aetiologic role of several medical conditions/interventions, including diabetes mellitus, cholecystectomy, ulcer/gastrectomy and allergic states. We also evaluated risk associated with family history(More)
A major area of unmet need is the development of strategies to restore neuronal network systems and to recover brain function in patients with neurological disease. The use of cell-based therapies remains an attractive approach, but its application has been challenging due to the lack of suitable cell sources, ethical concerns, and immune-mediated tissue(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating neonatal intestinal inflammatory disease, occurring primarily in premature infants, causing significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of NEC is associated with an excessive inflammatory IL-8 response. In this study, we hypothesized that this excessive inflammatory response is related to an(More)
Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) is required for morphogenesis of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and it has been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cultured enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs). The goal of this study was to investigate its in vivo role in the colon, the site most commonly affected by(More)
All internal organs are asymmetric along the left-right axis. Here we report a genetic screen to discover mutations which perturb organ laterality. Our particular focus is upon whether, and how, organs are linked to each other as they achieve their laterally asymmetric positions. We generated mutations by ENU mutagenesis and examined F3 progeny using a(More)