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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein forms a structural shell associated with the inner viral membrane and performs other essential functions throughout the viral life cycle. The crystal structure of the HIV-1 matrix protein, determined at 2.3 angstrom resolution, reveals that individual matrix molecules are composed of five major(More)
The HIV-1 matrix protein forms an icosahedral shell associated with the inner membrane of the mature virus. Genetic analyses have indicated that the protein performs important functions throughout the viral life-cycle, including anchoring the transmembrane envelope protein on the surface of the virus, assisting in viral penetration, transporting the(More)
The three-dimensional solution- and solid-state structures of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) matrix protein have been determined recently in our laboratories by NMR and X-ray crystallographic methods (Massiah et al. 1994. J Mol Biol 244:198-223; Hill et al. 1996. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:3099-3104). The matrix protein exists as a monomer(More)
The matrix protein performs similar roles in all retroviruses, initially directing membrane localization of the assembling viral particle and subsequently forming a stable structural shell associated with the inner surface of the mature viral membrane. Although conserved structural elements are likely to perform these functions in all retroviral matrix(More)
Real-Time Strategy (RTS) is a challenging domain for AI, since it involves not only a large state space, but also dynamic actions that agents execute concurrently. This problem cannot be optimally solved through general Q-learning techniques, so we propose a solution using a Semi Markov Decision Process (SMDP). We present a time-based reward shaping(More)
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