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OBJECT Catheter-related infection of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways is a potentially life-threatening complication of external ventricular drainage. A major source of infection is bacterial contamination along the external ventricular drain (EVD) catheter track. The authors examined the efficacy of EVD catheters impregnated with minocycline and(More)
Continuous regional cerebral cortical blood flow (rCoBF) was monitored with thermal diffusion flowmetry in 56 severely head-injured patients. Adequate, reliable data were accumulated from 37 patients (21 acute subdural hematomas, 10 cerebral contusions, 4 epidural hematomas, and 2 intracerebral hematomas). The thermal sensor was placed at the time of either(More)
Small doses of endotoxin evoked a dramatic biphasic response of opioid peptide secretion into blood in sheep. The first phase began within minutes and coincided with a brief hypertensive response to endotoxin well before the appearance of fever or hypotension. The ratio of beta-endorphin to beta-lipotropin fell abruptly at the onset of the second phase of(More)
The authors' report on the use of a prototype spinal stereotactic radiosurgery frame which was employed for the treatment of 9 patients who presented with recurrent neoplastic involvement of the spinal column. All patients had failed standard therapy consisting of surgery, external fractionated radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. Eight of the lesions(More)
Keywords: Fuzzy logic Knowledge elicitation Membership functions Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) Objective assessment Surgical training systems a b s t r a c t Effective training is the key to minimizing the dangers of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). At present, the assessment of laparoscopic skills relies on the expertise of senior surgeons. The(More)
Thromboembolic complications are a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality in the neurosurgical patient. Prophylaxis with lower extremity pneumatic compression boots (PCBs) reduces the incidence of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) but has not been shown to affect the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE). Prophylaxis with low-dose(More)
BACKGROUND Surgeons performing laparoscopic surgery have strong biases regarding the quality and nature of the laparoscopic video monitor display. In a comparative study, we used a unique computerized sensing and analysis system to evaluate the various types of monitors employed in laparoscopic surgery. METHODS We compared the impact of different types of(More)
In this paper, a hybrid view application is proposed — a subsystem of a computerized laparoscopic surgery training system. To minimize the potential hazards of laparo-scopic surgery, an assistive training system is being developed. A digital camera and magnetic position sensors are used to detect laparoscopic instruments in the system. The hybrid view is a(More)
A prototype device called an extracranial stereotactic radiosurgery frame was used to deliver stereotactic radiosurgery, with a modified linear accelerator, to metastatic neoplasms in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions in five patients. In all patients, the neoplasms had failed to respond to spinal cord tolerance doses delivered by standard external(More)
To provide appropriate guidance in minimally invasive surgical training (and potentially an additional safety measure in the operating room), we propose a model called a "No-Fly Zone" based on the situational awareness enhancing system. By defining the configuration space of the instrument, a collision free region is defined. If an intrusion occurs into the(More)