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It has long been empirically observed that the cache miss rate decreased as a power law of cache size, where the power was approximately-1/2. In this paper, we examine the dependence of the cache miss rate on cache size both theoretically and through simulation. By combining the observed time dependence of the cache reference pattern with a statistical(More)
A new memory structure using threshold shifting from charge stored in nanocrystals of silicon (Ϸ5nm in size͒ is described. The devices utilize direct tunneling and storage of electrons in the nanocrystals. The limited size and capacitance of the nanocrystals limit the numbers of stored electrons. Coulomb blockade effects may be important in these structures(More)
We formulate a new method for evaluating any prefetching algorithm (real or hypothetical). This method allows researchers to analyze the potential improvements prefetching can bring to an application independent of any known prefetching algorithm. We characterize prefetching with the metrics: timeliness, coverage, and accuracy. We demonstrate the usefulness(More)
We formulate a new approach for evaluating a prefetching algorithm. We first carry out a profiling run of a program to identify all of the misses and corresponding locations in the program where prefetches for the misses can be initiated. We then systematically control the number of misses that are prefetched, the timeliness of these prefetches, and the(More)
The impact of pipeline length on both the power and performance of a microprocessor is explored both by theory and by simulation. A theory is presented for a range of power/performance metrics, <i>BIPS<sup>m</sup>/W</i>. The theory shows that the more important power is to the metric, the shorter the optimum pipeline length that results. For typical(More)
We describe a new technique called Pipeline Spectroscopy that allows us to precisely measure the cost of each cache miss. The cost of a miss is displayed (graphed) as a histogram, which represents a precise readout showing a detailed visualization of the cost of each cache miss throughout all levels of the memory hierarchy. We call the graphs 'spectrograms'(More)