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Besides the involvement of superior temporal regions in processing complex speech sounds, evidence suggests that the motor system might also play a role [1-4]. This suggests that the hearer might perceive speech by simulating the articulatory gestures of the speaker [5, 6]. It is still an open question whether this simulation process is necessary for speech(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Functional brain imaging after stroke offers insight into motor network adaptations. This exploratory study examined whether motor cortical activation captured during arm-focused therapy can predict paretic hand functional gains. METHODS Eight hemiparetic patients had serial functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a pinch task(More)
People all over the world use their hands to communicate expressively. Autonomous gestures, also known as emblems, are highly social in nature, and convey conventionalized meaning without accompanying speech. To study the neural bases of cross-cultural social communication, we used single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to measure(More)
Understanding how to make learning more efficient and effective is an important goal in behavioral neuroscience. The notion of "desirable difficulties" asserts that challenges for learners during study result in superior learning. One "desirable difficulty" that has a robust benefit on learning is contextual interference (CI), in which different tasks are(More)
BACKGROUND In Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), the Motor Threshold (MT) is the minimum intensity required to evoke a liminal response in the target muscle. Because the MT reflects cortical excitability, the TMS intensity needs to be adjusted according to the subject's MT at the beginning of every TMS session. OBJECTIVE Shorten the MT estimation(More)
Practice of tasks in an interleaved order generally induces superior retention compared to practicing in a repetitive order. Younger and older adults practiced serial reaction time tasks that were arranged in a repeated or an interleaved order on 2 successive days. Retention was tested on Day 5. For both groups, reaction times in the interleaved condition(More)
Practice of tasks in an interleaved order generally induces superior learning compared with practicing in a repetitive order, a phenomenon known as the contextual-interference (CI) effect. Increased neural activity during interleaved over repetitive practice has been associated with the beneficial effects of CI. Here, we used psychophysiological interaction(More)
In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on social cognition in 36 individuals with schizophrenia. Participants received a baseline assessment and one week later received either anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS, with 12 participants randomized to each condition. A single 20-minute session tDCS was(More)
This study used bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to target neural generators of auditory Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and oddball P300 in schizophrenia patients. tDCS was applied to the pre-frontal cortex in a parallel between-group design. There was a significant main effect of stimulation resulting in modulation of MMN amplitude. This(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are promising noninvasive cortical stimulation methods for adjunctive treatment of movement disorders. They avoid surgical risks and provide theoretical advantages of specific neural circuit neuromodulation. Neuromodulatory effects depend on extrinsic(More)