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The p53 tumour suppressor is a transcription factor that regulates the progression of the cell through its cycle and cell death (apoptosis) in response to environmental stimuli such as DNA damage and hypoxia. Even though p53 modulates these critical cellular processes, mice that lack p53 are developmentally normal, suggesting that p53-related proteins might(More)
Mutations in the p53 tumour-suppressor gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. To investigate the role of the p53 gene in mammalian development and tumorigenesis, a null mutation was introduced into the gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for the null allele appear normal but are(More)
Chk1, an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase, has been implicated in cell cycle checkpoint control in lower eukaryotes. By gene disruption, we show that CHK1 deficiency results in a severe proliferation defect and death in embryonic stem (ES) cells, and peri-implantation embryonic lethality in mice. Through analysis of a conditional CHK1-deficient cell(More)
The Wnt-1 (int-1) proto-oncogene, which encodes a putative signaling molecule, is expressed exclusively in the developing central nervous system and adult testes. To examine the role of Wnt-1, we generated six independent embryonic stem cell lines in which insertion of a neoR gene by homologous recombination inactivated a Wnt-1 allele. Germline chimeras(More)
MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs that are increasingly being recognized as important regulators of gene expression. Although hundreds of microRNAs are present in the mammalian genome, genetic studies addressing their physiological roles are at an early stage. We have shown that mice deficient for bic/microRNA-155 are immunodeficient and display increased(More)
To understand the normal, physiological role of the c-src proto-oncogene, a null mutation was introduced into the gene by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells. Two independent targeted clones were used to generate chimeras that transmitted the mutated allele to their offspring. Intercrossing of heterozygotes gave rise to live born(More)
Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function(More)
Several studies have implicated Wnt signalling in primary axis formation during vertebrate embryogenesis, yet no Wnt protein has been shown to be essential for this process. In the mouse, primitive streak formation is the first overt morphological sign of the anterior-posterior axis. Here we show that Wnt3 is expressed before gastrulation in the proximal(More)
To address the function of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in mammalian development, mice with a targeted deletion of the Bmp2 mature region were generated using embryonic stem cell technology. This mutation caused embryonic lethality when homozygous. Mutant embryos failed to close the proamniotic canal, which caused the malformation of the(More)
DiGeorge syndrome is characterized by cardiovascular, thymus and parathyroid defects and craniofacial anomalies, and is usually caused by a heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 22q11.2 (del22q11) (ref. 1). A targeted, heterozygous deletion, named Df(16)1, encompassing around 1 megabase of the homologous region in mouse causes cardiovascular(More)