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To understand the normal, physiological role of the c-src proto-oncogene, a null mutation was introduced into the gene by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells. Two independent targeted clones were used to generate chimeras that transmitted the mutated allele to their offspring. Intercrossing of heterozygotes gave rise to live born(More)
Mutations in the p53 tumour-suppressor gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. To investigate the role of the p53 gene in mammalian development and tumorigenesis, a null mutation was introduced into the gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for the null allele appear normal but are(More)
The p53 tumour suppressor is a transcription factor that regulates the progression of the cell through its cycle and cell death (apoptosis) in response to environmental stimuli such as DNA damage and hypoxia. Even though p53 modulates these critical cellular processes, mice that lack p53 are developmentally normal, suggesting that p53-related proteins might(More)
The Wnt-1 (int-1) proto-oncogene, which encodes a putative signaling molecule, is expressed exclusively in the developing central nervous system and adult testes. To examine the role of Wnt-1, we generated six independent embryonic stem cell lines in which insertion of a neoR gene by homologous recombination inactivated a Wnt-1 allele. Germline chimeras(More)
MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs that are increasingly being recognized as important regulators of gene expression. Although hundreds of microRNAs are present in the mammalian genome, genetic studies addressing their physiological roles are at an early stage. We have shown that mice deficient for bic/microRNA-155 are immunodeficient and display increased(More)
Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function(More)
To directly assess c-myc function in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and embryogenesis, we have used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to generate both heterozygous and homozygous c-myc mutant ES cell lines. The mutation is a null allele at the protein level. Mouse chimeras from seven heterozygous cell lines transmitted the mutant(More)
Mice that are deficient in either the Pms2 or Msh2 DNA mismatch repair genes have microsatellite instability and a predisposition to tumours. Interestingly, Pms2-deficient males display sterility associated with abnormal chromosome pairing in meiosis. Here mice deficient in another mismatch repair gene, Mlh1, possess not only microsatellite instability but(More)
Neurons in the visual cortex respond selectively to stimulus orientation and spatial frequency. Changes in response amplitudes of these neurons could be the neurophysiological basis of orientation and spatial frequency discrimination. We have estimated the minimum differences in stimulus orientation and spatial frequency that can produce reliable changes in(More)
Circadian rhythms are driven by endogenous biological clocks that regulate many biochemical, physiological and behavioural processes in a wide range of life forms. In mammals, there is a master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus. Three putative mammalian homologues (mPer1, mPer2 and mPer3) of the Drosophila circadian(More)