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Here we provide a mechanism for specific, efficient transcription of the TNF gene and, potentially, other genes residing within multigene loci. We identify and characterize highly conserved noncoding elements flanking the TNF gene, which undergo activation-dependent intrachromosomal interactions. These elements, hypersensitive site (HSS)-9 and HSS+3 (9 kb(More)
The cytokine TNF is a critical mediator of immune and inflammatory responses. The TNF gene is an immediate early gene, rapidly transcribed in a variety of cell types following exposure to a broad range of pathogens and signals of inflammation and stress. Regulation of TNF gene expression at the transcriptional level is cell type- and stimulus-specific,(More)
Four nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) binding motifs were found in the murine CD40 ligand promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using 18-base pair (bp) long oligonucleotides corresponding to the proximal site and nuclear extracts from activated T cells revealed two complexes which were inhibited by cyclosporin A and contained NF-ATc and(More)
To replicate, HIV-1 capitalizes on endogenous cellular activation pathways resulting in recruitment of key host transcription factors to its viral enhancer. RNA interference has been a powerful tool for blocking key checkpoints in HIV-1 entry into cells. Here we apply RNA interference to HIV-1 transcription in primary macrophages, a major reservoir of the(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is the key mediator of superantigen-induced T cell lethal shock. Here, we show that nuclear factor of activated T cells transcription factor, NFATp, controls susceptibility to superantigen-induced lethal shock in mice through its activation of TNF-alpha gene transcription. In NFATp-deficient mice, T cell stimulation(More)
We have studied the transcriptional activation of the human TNF-alpha gene by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in the human premonocytic cell line THP-1. Nuclear proteins from SEA-stimulated THP-1 cells bound strongly to kappa 3, the most proximal of three putative NF-kappa B binding sites (kappa 1-kappa 3) found in the 5' regulatory(More)
The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene is rapidly activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity but not calcineurin phosphatase activity is required for LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha gene expression. In LPS-stimulated macrophages, the ERK substrates Ets and Elk-1 bind to the(More)
We have previously shown that both CD40 ligation and IL-4 induce lymphotoxin alpha (LT alpha) expression in B cells. We generated a series of truncations of the LT alpha upstream region (-915 to +7 bp) and examined their ability to drive expression of a luciferase (LUC) reporter gene in B cells. The CD40-responsive promoter region of LT alpha was mapped to(More)
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene is activated by multiple extracellular signals in a stimulus- and cell type-specific fashion. Based on the presence of kappaB-like DNA motifs in the region upstream of the TNF gene, some have proposed a direct role for NF-kappaB in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF gene transcription in cells of the(More)
We present evidence that the inducer-specific regulation of the human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in T cells involves the assembly of distinct higher-order transcription enhancer complexes (enhanceosomes), which is dependent upon inducer-specific helical phasing relationships between transcription factor binding sites. While ATF-2, c-Jun,(More)