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The crystal structure of a pepstatin-insensitive carboxyl proteinase from Pseudomonas sp. 101 (PSCP) has been solved by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction using the absorption peak of bromide anions. Structures of the uninhibited enzyme and of complexes with an inhibitor that was either covalently or noncovalently bound were refined at 1.0-1.4 A(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin (IL)-10 is a cytokine that inhibits production of other regulatory factors, including interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2. A dimer of IL-10 is present in solution and is presumed to participate in receptor binding, but the nature of the dimer has not been previously reported. An atomic model is necessary to interpret biological(More)
ATP-dependent Lon protease degrades specific short-lived regulatory proteins as well as defective and abnormal proteins in the cell. The crystal structure of the proteolytic domain (P domain) of the Escherichia coli Lon has been solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion and refined at 1.75-A resolution. The P domain was obtained by chymotrypsin(More)
ATP-dependent Lon proteases are multi-domain enzymes found in all living organisms. All Lon proteases contain an ATPase domain belonging to the AAA(+) superfamily of molecular machines and a proteolytic domain with a serine-lysine catalytic dyad. Lon proteases can be divided into two subfamilies, LonA and LonB, exemplified by the Escherichia coli and(More)
In order to study the relationships of aspartic proteases, we have modified pepsin, a single-chain eukaryotic enzyme, to a two-chain heterodimer, which resembles aspartic proteases from retrovirus, including human immunodeficiency virus. Two fragments of pepsinogen, residues 1P-172 and 173-326, were expressed separately in Escherichia coli. Mixtures of(More)
The successful development of a number of HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors for the treatment of AIDS has validated the utilization of retroviral PRs as drug targets and necessitated their detailed structural study. Here we report the structure of a complex of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) PR with a substrate-based inhibitor bound in subsites P5(More)
The structure of a recombinant construct consisting of residues 1-245 of Escherichia coli Lon protease, the prototypical member of the A-type Lon family, is reported. This construct encompasses all or most of the N-terminal domain of the enzyme. The structure was solved by SeMet SAD to 2.6 A resolution utilizing trigonal crystals that contained one molecule(More)
The crystal structure of the small, mostly helical alpha domain of the AAA+ module of the Escherichia coli ATP-dependent protease Lon has been solved by single isomorphous replacement combined with anomalous scattering and refined at 1.9A resolution to a crystallographic R factor of 17.9%. This domain, comprising residues 491-584, was obtained by(More)
Crystal structures of the serine-carboxyl proteinase from Pseudomonas sp. 101 (PSCP), complexed with a number of inhibitors, have been solved and refined at high- to atomic-level resolution. All of these inhibitors (tyrostatin, pseudo-tyrostatin, AcIPF, AcIAF, and chymostatin, as well as previously studied iodotyrostatin and pseudo-iodotyrostatin) make(More)
Sedolisins (serine-carboxyl peptidases) are proteolytic enzymes whose fold resembles that of subtilisin; however, they are considerably larger, with the mature catalytic domains containing approximately 375 amino acids. The defining features of these enzymes are a unique catalytic triad, Ser-Glu-Asp, as well as the presence of an aspartic acid residue in(More)