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The crystal structure of a pepstatin-insensitive carboxyl proteinase from Pseudomonas sp. 101 (PSCP) has been solved by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction using the absorption peak of bromide anions. Structures of the uninhibited enzyme and of complexes with an inhibitor that was either covalently or noncovalently bound were refined at 1.0-1.4 A(More)
The successful development of a number of HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors for the treatment of AIDS has validated the utilization of retroviral PRs as drug targets and necessitated their detailed structural study. Here we report the structure of a complex of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) PR with a substrate-based inhibitor bound in subsites P5(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin (IL)-10 is a cytokine that inhibits production of other regulatory factors, including interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2. A dimer of IL-10 is present in solution and is presumed to participate in receptor binding, but the nature of the dimer has not been previously reported. An atomic model is necessary to interpret biological(More)
ATP-dependent Lon protease degrades specific short-lived regulatory proteins as well as defective and abnormal proteins in the cell. The crystal structure of the proteolytic domain (P domain) of the Escherichia coli Lon has been solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion and refined at 1.75-A resolution. The P domain was obtained by chymotrypsin(More)
Kinetic analysis and modeling studies of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteinases were carried out using the oligopeptide substrate [formula: see text] and its analogs containing single amino acid substitutions in P3-P3' positions. The two proteinases acted similarly on the substrates except those having certain hydrophobic amino acids at P2, P1, P2', and P3' positions(More)
ATP-dependent Lon proteases are multi-domain enzymes found in all living organisms. All Lon proteases contain an ATPase domain belonging to the AAA(+) superfamily of molecular machines and a proteolytic domain with a serine-lysine catalytic dyad. Lon proteases can be divided into two subfamilies, LonA and LonB, exemplified by the Escherichia coli and(More)
A protein isolated from the bark of Crataeva tapia (CrataBL) is both a Kunitz-type plant protease inhibitor and a lectin. We have determined the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of CrataBL, as well as characterized its selected biochemical and biological properties. We found two different isoforms of CrataBL isolated from the original(More)
In order to study the relationships of aspartic proteases, we have modified pepsin, a single-chain eukaryotic enzyme, to a two-chain heterodimer, which resembles aspartic proteases from retrovirus, including human immunodeficiency virus. Two fragments of pepsinogen, residues 1P-172 and 173-326, were expressed separately in Escherichia coli. Mixtures of(More)
The structure of a recombinant construct consisting of residues 1-245 of Escherichia coli Lon protease, the prototypical member of the A-type Lon family, is reported. This construct encompasses all or most of the N-terminal domain of the enzyme. The structure was solved by SeMet SAD to 2.6 A resolution utilizing trigonal crystals that contained one molecule(More)
The crystal structure of the small, mostly helical alpha domain of the AAA+ module of the Escherichia coli ATP-dependent protease Lon has been solved by single isomorphous replacement combined with anomalous scattering and refined at 1.9A resolution to a crystallographic R factor of 17.9%. This domain, comprising residues 491-584, was obtained by(More)