Alla Brukman

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The turtle shell is an evolutionary novelty that is synapomorphic for chelonians. The carapace is initiated by the entrapment of the ribs by the carapacial ridge (CR), a lateral bulge of the dorsal ectoderm and dermal mesoderm. The mechanisms by which the CR is initiated, the ribs entrapped and the dorsal dermis ossified, remains unknown. Similarly, the(More)
The turtle shell, an evolutionarily novel structure, contains a bony exoskeleton that includes a dorsal carapace and a ventral plastron. The development of the carapace is dependent on the carapacial ridge (CR), a bulge in the dorsal flank that contains an ectodermal structure analogous to the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of the developing limb (Burke.(More)
Pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alphaherpesvirus related to herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus, infects a broad host range of mammals. A striking characteristic of PRV infection is the different symptoms and outcomes of infection in natural and nonnatural hosts. Adult pigs, the natural hosts of PRV, survive infection with only mild(More)
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an alphaherpesvirus related to the human pathogens herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus. PRV is capable of infecting and killing a wide variety of mammals. How it avoids innate immune defenses in so many hosts is not understood. While the anti-interferon (IFN) strategies of HSV-1 have been studied,(More)
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