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Many different definitions for multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacteria are being used in the medical literature to characterize the different patterns of resistance found in healthcare-associated, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. A group of international experts came together through a joint(More)
The success or failure of antimicrobial therapy in bacterial and fungal infections is predicted ideally by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), in which microorganisms are divided into treatable and non-treatable categories on the basis of MIC breakpoints. In Europe, the categorization was traditionally a clinical one and it was made irrespective of(More)
The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to health services worldwide. These bacteria are often resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics and frequently co-resistant to most other antibiotics, leaving very few treatment options. The epidemiology is compounded by the diversity of carbapenem-hydrolysing(More)
Seventeen Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates carrying the bla(VIM-1) metallo-beta-lactamase gene were collected in the intensive care units of three hospitals in Athens, Greece, in 2002. They exhibited various carbapenem resistance levels (Etest MICs of imipenem ranged from 4 to 32 microg/ml). All isolates gave positive results by the imipenem-EDTA(More)
Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing KPC-type carbapenemases (KPC-KP) are challenging multidrug-resistant pathogens due to their extensively drug-resistant phenotypes and potential for epidemic dissemination in health care settings. Colistin is a key component of the combination antimicrobial regimens used for treatment of severe KPC-KP infections. We(More)
The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a threat to healthcare delivery, although its extent differs substantially from country to country. In February 2013, national experts from 39 European countries were invited to self-assess the current epidemiological situation of CPE in their country. Information about national management of(More)
A survey was made of serotype association and multiple antibiotic resistance in strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Europe. Of 208 epidemiologically distinct strains from 16 laboratories in 10 countries, 48 were resistant to carbenicillin (MIC greater than 128 micrograms/ml) and gentamicin (MIC greater than 4 micrograms/ml), and 12 of these strains were of(More)
The Legionella colonization frequency at 385 Greek hotel hot and cold water distribution systems was 20.8%. Legionella contamination was associated with the presence of an oil heater (odds ratio [OR]=2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.12 to 3.70), with the sample temperature (OR=0.26, 95% CI=0.1 to 0.5), with seasonal operation (OR=3.23, 95% CI=1.52 to(More)