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Many different definitions for multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacteria are being used in the medical literature to characterize the different patterns of resistance found in healthcare-associated, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. A group of international experts came together through a joint(More)
The success or failure of antimicrobial therapy in bacterial and fungal infections is predicted ideally by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), in which microorganisms are divided into treatable and non-treatable categories on the basis of MIC breakpoints. In Europe, the categorization was traditionally a clinical one and it was made irrespective of(More)
Seventeen Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates carrying the bla(VIM-1) metallo-beta-lactamase gene were collected in the intensive care units of three hospitals in Athens, Greece, in 2002. They exhibited various carbapenem resistance levels (Etest MICs of imipenem ranged from 4 to 32 microg/ml). All isolates gave positive results by the imipenem-EDTA(More)
The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a threat to healthcare delivery, although its extent differs substantially from country to country. In February 2013, national experts from 39 European countries were invited to self-assess the current epidemiological situation of CPE in their country. Information about national management of(More)
The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to health services worldwide. These bacteria are often resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics and frequently co-resistant to most other antibiotics, leaving very few treatment options. The epidemiology is compounded by the diversity of carbapenem-hydrolysing(More)
Acquired carbapenemases are emerging resistance determinants in Gram-negative pathogens, including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative non-fermenters. A consistent number of acquired carbapenemases have been identified during the past few years, belonging to either molecular class B (metallo-beta-lactamases) or molecular(More)
Bacteria communicate with one another and with their host using chemical signalling molecules. This phenomenon is generally described as quorum sensing. A set of primers for PCR detection of Salmonella spp. has been designed using as target the sdiA gene which encodes a signal receptor of the LuxR family. The PCR product (274 bp) was confirmed by(More)
Starting in May 2007, an ongoing outbreak of infections due to carbapenem resistant KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae occurred in a tertiary care hospital in Crete (Greece). The outbreak involved 22 patients, none of whom had travelled in a country with known high prevalence of such isolates. KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were mainly isolated from(More)
A significant increase in the frequency of isolation of Salmonella enteritidis has been observed during recent years in Greece, parallelled by an increasing rate of resistance of this organism to antibiotics. A substantial proportion of ampicillin- and doxycycline-resistant isolates exhibited cross-resistance to drugs of other classes, such as sulfonamides(More)
To verify the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing (KPC-producing) Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece, we asked 40 Greek hospitals participating in the Greek System for the Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (GSSAR) to apply a combination of the modified Hodge test plus EDTA synergy test on all K. pneumoniae clinical isolates(More)