Alita Kongchanagul

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Avian influenza viruses preferentially recognize sialosugar chains terminating in sialic acid-alpha2,3-galactose (SAalpha2,3Gal), whereas human influenza viruses preferentially recognize SAalpha2,6Gal. A conversion to SAalpha2,6Gal specificity is believed to be one of the changes required for the introduction of new hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes to the human(More)
BACKGROUND Adaptation of the receptor-binding preference from alpha2,3- to alpha2,6-linked sialic acid is an essential step for an avian influenza virus to transmit efficiently in human population and become a pandemic virus. The currently available assays for receptor-binding preference are complex and not widely available. OBJECTIVES A simple(More)
The pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in humans has not been clearly elucidated. Apoptosis may also play an important role. We studied autopsy specimens from 2 patients who died of infection with this virus. Apoptosis was observed in alveolar epithelial cells, which is the major target cell type for the viral replication. Numerous apoptotic(More)
Seasonal epidemics caused by antigenic variations in influenza A virus remain a public health concern and an economic burden. The isolation and characterization of broadly neutralizing anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal antibodies (MAb) have highlighted the presence of highly conserved epitopes in divergent influenza A viruses. Here, we describe the generation(More)
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus has spread through at least 45 countries in three continents. Despite the ability to infect and cause severe disease in humans, the virus cannot transmit efficiently from human to human. The lack of efficient transmission indicates the incompletion of the adaptation of the avian virus to the new host species. The(More)
Microarray analysis of gene expression profile of lungs from two fatal H5N1 influenza cases identified 3,435 genes with higher than twofold changes in mRNA levels as compared to those of normal lung. One thousand nineteen genes and 2,416 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated commonly, respectively. Gene ontology analysis identified several ontology(More)
AIM To characterise neuraminidase (NA) substrate specificity of avian influenza H5N1 strains from humans and birds comparing to seasonal influenza virus. METHODS Avian influenza H5N1 strains from humans and birds were recruited for characterising their NA substrate specificity by using a modified commercial fluorescence Amplex Red assay. This method can(More)
Codon volatility is a method recently developed to estimate selective pressures on proteins on the basis of their synonymous codon usage. Volatility of a codon was defined as the fraction of single nucleotide substitutions that would be nonsynonymous. Higher volatility may indicate that the gene has been under more positive selection in the recent past. We(More)
Formulation and quality control of trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine requires titration of infectivity of individual strains in the trivalent mix. This is usually performed by selective neutralization of two of the three strains and titration of the un-neutralized strain in cell culture or embryonated eggs. This procedure requires standard sera(More)