Alistair Woodward

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BACKGROUND Existing theoretical models of the potential effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases do not account for social factors such as population increase, or interactions between climate variables. Our aim was to investigate the potential effects of global climate change on human health, and in particular, on the transmission of vector-borne(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to second-hand smoke is common in many countries but the magnitude of the problem worldwide is poorly described. We aimed to estimate the worldwide exposure to second-hand smoke and its burden of disease in children and adult non-smokers in 2004. METHODS The burden of disease from second-hand smoke was estimated as deaths and(More)
We used Comparative Risk Assessment methods to estimate the health effects of alternative urban land transport scenarios for two settings-London, UK, and Delhi, India. For each setting, we compared a business-as-usual 2030 projection (without policies for reduction of greenhouse gases) with alternative scenarios-lower-carbon-emission motor vehicles,(More)
The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case–control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields(More)
(Environmental burden of disease series / series editors: Annette Prüss-Ustun ... [et al.]; no. 4) 1.Air pollution, Indoor-analysis 2.Smoke-toxicity 3.Fossil fuels-toxicity 4.Respiratory tract diseases-etiology 5. Indoor smoke from solid fuels: Assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. The designations employed and the(More)
The world's climate appears now to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Shifts in the distribution and behaviour of insect and bird species indicate that biological systems are already responding to this change. It is well established that climate is an important determinant of the spatial and temporal distribution of vectors and pathogens. In theory, a(More)
BACKGROUND Few cohort studies of the health effects of urban air pollution have been published. There is evidence, most consistently in studies with individual measurement of social factors, that more deprived populations are particularly sensitive to air pollution effects. METHODS Records from the 1996 New Zealand census were anonymously and(More)
BACKGROUND The New Zealand 2003 Smoke-free Environments Amendment Act (SEAA) extended existing restrictions on smoking in office and retail workplaces by introducing smoking bans in bars, casinos, members' clubs, restaurants and nearly all other workplaces from 10 December 2004. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the implementation and outcomes of aspects of the SEAA(More)
Multi-level research that attempts to describe ecological effects in themselves (for example, the effect on individual health from living in deprived communities), while also including individual level effects (for example, the effect of personal socioeconomic disadvantage), is now prominent in research on the socioeconomic determinants of health and(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE The aim was to investigate the relation between passive smoking and childhood acute respiratory illness. DESIGN The study involved an initial postal survey on a random sample of children followed by a case-control study based on the survey. A respiratory illness score was calculated from maternal reports of episodes of illness in the(More)