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Elimination of malignant cells and intracellular infections involves collaboration between CTLs and Th1 inflammation. Dendritic cells drive this response via costimulation and cytokines. We have defined key signals required for the exponential expansion of specific CD8(+) T cells in vivo in mice. Immunization with two or more TLR agonists, anti-CD40,(More)
Recognition of specific protein antigens leads to immunological memory of antigen, whereas recognition of danger signals by the innate immune system determines the size, nature and longevity of a response. Recent data indicate that recognition of danger might have long-lasting effects on CD8 memory T-cell populations, specifically enhancing early cytokine(More)
The biochemical basis for complement acting directly on antigen-presenting cells to enhance their function in T-cell stimulation has been unclear. Here we present evidence that engagement of C3a receptor (C3aR) on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) leads to alterations in the level of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a potent negative(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is a multifunctional regulator of cell growth and differentiation with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. We used an inhibitor of TGF-beta receptor I (TGF-betaRI) kinase, SD-208 (2,4-disubstituted pteridine, a ATP-competitive inhibitor of TGF-betaRI kinase), to determine the role of TGF-beta in airway allergic(More)
Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases including asthma. We examined the effect of SP600125 (anthra [1,9-cd] pyrazol-6 (2H)-one), a novel inhibitor of JNK in a model of asthma. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized to ovalbumin and treated with SP600125 intraperitoneally (90 mg/kg in total). SP600125(More)
The role of T-helper type 17 (Th17) responses in airway remodeling in asthma is currently unknown. We demonstrate that both parenteral and mucosal allergen sensitization, followed by allergen inhalation, leads to Th17-biased lung immune responses. Unlike Th17 cells generated in vitro, lung Th17 cells did not produce tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin(More)
During an immune response, peripheral T cells develop into functionally distinct subpopulations that effect cell-mediated immunity and regulate humoral immune responses through the secretion of specific cytokines. Recent data suggest that CD8+ T cells, which have long been regarded simply as cytotoxic cells, play a more active role in the regulation of the(More)
Chronic cellular inflammation and airway wall remodeling with subepithelial fibrosis and airway smooth muscle thickening are features of chronic asthma. We determined the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced airway cell proliferation and inflammation by studying the effects of a relatively selective prodrug inhibitor of nitric-oxide(More)