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Minimal standards for describing new taxa within the aerobic endospore-forming bacteria are proposed, following Recommendation 30b of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision). These minimal standards are recommended as guidelines to assist authors in the preparation of descriptions for novel taxa. They encourage broad polyphasic characterization and the(More)
We report here the first Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin which is toxic to insects from three insect orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera). An oligonucleotide probe based on the delta-endotoxin N-terminal sequence was used to detect the gene. A 23-kb BamHI fragment containing the intact gene was identified and cloned from Bt strain YBT-226 plasmid(More)
Two media were developed which specifically allow the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis while it is in the vegetative as opposed to the spore form. Using these media B. thuringiensis was shown conclusively for the first time to exist in an active form on the phylloplane. The profile of its appearance in vegetative and spore form was followed over a(More)
Treatment with silver-containing wound dressings is becoming an increasingly popular strategy to eliminate growth of opportunistic wound pathogens during the healing process. However, there are concerns over the possible side-effects of silver to the patient; coupled to the cost of silver as an ingredient there is a desire to ensure that wound dressings(More)
Of newly isolated colonies with the appearance of Bacillus thuringiensis, 47.5% were found to produce the parasporal crystals characteristic of this species. These positive isolates were screened using the polymerase chain reaction for their possession of a gene encoding a specific protoxin type, CryIB. Strains with and without this gene were screened for(More)
Seedlings of clover (Triflorium hybridum) were colonized by Bacillus thuringiensis when spores and seeds were co-inoculated into soil. Both a strain isolated in the vegetative form from the phylloplane of clover, 2810-S-4, and a laboratory strain, HD-1, were able to colonize clover to a density of about 1000 CFU/g leaf when seeds were sown in sterile soil(More)
The studies reported here have been undertaken to assess the potential use of isothermal microcalorimetry in studying the antimicrobial efficacy of wound dressings that contain antimicrobial agents. The microcalorimetric technique allows non-invasive and non-destructive analysis to be performed directly on a test sample, regardless of whether it is(More)
Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of plant parasitic nematodes and has yet to be grown in vitro. We have cloned the pivotal sporulation gene, spo0A, which is the first whole gene yet to come from this organism. Partial spo0A sequences were also obtained from the related bacteria, Pasteuria ramosa and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius. Phylogenetic(More)
The chromosomal genotype, as judged by multi locus sequence typing, and the episomal genotype, as judged by plasmid profile and cry gene content, were analyzed for a collection of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. These had been recovered in vegetative form over a period of several months from the leaves of a small plot of clover (Trifolium hybridum). A(More)
Several strains of Bacillus thuringiensis were previously isolated from soil in Antarctica and appeared to have physiological adaptations to this cold, nutrient-poor environment. In spite of this they could produce abnormally large, parasporal crystals under laboratory conditions. Here, they have been further characterised for toxin genes and invertebrate(More)