Alistair B A Boxall

Learn More
Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application(More)
The impact of veterinary medicines on the environment will depend on a number of factors including physicochemical properties, amount used and method of administration, treatment type and dose, animal husbandry practices, manure storage and handling practices, metabolism within the animal, and degradation rates in manure and slurry. Once released to the(More)
Medicines play an important role in the treatment and prevention of disease. Whereas the side effects on human and animal health resulting directly from treatment have been widely documented, only recently have the occurrence and fate of medicines in the environment and the potential consequences for human health been recognized as an issue warranting(More)
Veterinary medicines are administered to animals to treat disease and protect their health. After administration, the substances can be metabolised and a mixture of the parent compound and metabolites may be excreted in the urine and faeces. For animals on pasture, the excreta will be released directly to soil whereas for intensively reared animals, the(More)
It is inevitable that, during their use, engineered nanoparticles will be released into soils and waters. There is therefore increasing concern over the potential impacts of engineered nanoparticles in the environment on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and on human health. Once released into the environment, engineered nanoparticles will aggregate to some(More)
The environmental fate of the antibiotics sulfachloropyridazine and oxytetracycline was investigated in a sandy loam soil. Liquid pig manure was fortified with the compounds and then applied to soil plots to investigate leaching, dissipation and surface run-off under field conditions. Additionally, as the macrolide antibiotic tylosin had been administered(More)
Nanotechnology is developing rapidly and, in the future, it is expected that increasingly more products will contain some sort of nanomaterial. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence, fate and toxicity of nanoparticles. The limitations in our knowledge are partly due to the lack of methodology for the detection and characterisation of(More)
There is an increasing concern over the safety of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to humans and the environment and it is likely that the environmental risks of these particles will have to be tested under regulatory schemes such as REACH. Due to their unique properties and the fact that their detection and characterisation in complex matrices is(More)
Pesticides play an important role in the success of modern farming and food production. However, the release of pesticides to the environment arising from non-approved use, poor practice, illegal operations or misuse is increasingly recognised as contributing to water contamination. Biobeds appear to offer a cost-effective method for treating(More)