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In the present study, we report the effects of adenosine receptor antagonists on pial vasodilatation during contralateral sciatic nerve stimulation (SNS). The pial circulation was observed through a closed cranial window in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized rats. In artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), SNS resulted in a 30.5 +/- 13.2% increase in pial(More)
Ocular neoplasms, both primary and metastatic, may present with visual disturbance or vision loss and often are asymptomatic. Clinical ophthalmologic examination may demonstrate leukocoria, abnormal pupillary light reflex, or a mass lesion with or without retinal detachment or hemorrhage. Retinoblastoma in children and uveal melanoma and ocular metastases(More)
BACKGROUND We used in vivo corneal confocal microscopy to investigate structural differences in the sub-basal corneal nerve plexus in chronic migraine patients and a normal population. We used a validated questionnaire and tests of lacrimal function to determine the prevalence of dry eye in the same group of chronic migraine patients. Activation of the(More)
Ocular cross-sectional imaging is usually obtained as an adjunct to clinical ophthalmologic examination and ocular ultrasound. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) are complimentary for ocular imaging and are performed for evaluation of the vitreous cavity, choroid, retina, sclera, and potential spaces and for the assessment of extension(More)
Interpretation of globe imaging after ophthalmologic surgical intervention, just like postoperative imaging in any location, can create a diagnostic dilemma if the radiologist is not familiar with the type of surgery performed and the nature and location of any implanted devices. Certain implants and devices may create artifacts on computed tomography or(More)
Infection, inflammation, and systemic diseases affecting the globe encompass a broad range of pathologies which may ultimately lead to progressive vision loss. Clinical symptomatology varies from the inexorably silent progressive visual loss to an acute presentation of ocular pain and/or red eye. Most are diagnosed by clinical ophthalmologic examination(More)
Most patients with migraine report photophobia associated with headache; a subset report interictal photophobia. These patients are light sensitive even during headache-free periods. The objective of this case–control study was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in migraine patients with and without interictal photophobia. We(More)
Ultrasound is often used as an adjuvant in the workup of ocular pathology in children. It is particularly useful when ophthalmoscopic examination is limited, such as in the presence of extreme miosis or opaque ocular media. Other indications include assessment of a mass seen at ophthalmoscopy, elucidation of a mass underlying a retinal detachment, ocular(More)
Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) generally is considered a disorder of adults; however, it rarely can present in childhood or adolescence. The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of BEB in children and adolescents. Our research question was whether blepharospasm is seen in children or adolescents as well as in the adult(More)