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This study is the first report of saxitoxin in cyanobacterial blooms in Finland. Bloom samples (n = 50) were collected from Finnish freshwater sites during summer months of 2002 and 2003. These samples were screened for the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) using the Jellett rapid PSP screening test. Samples testing positive for PSTs (n = 7)(More)
Domoic acid is a potent neurotoxin that is naturally produced by several diatom species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. The toxin acts as a glutamate agonist and is excitotoxic in the vertebrate central nervous system and other glutamate receptor-rich organs. Human exposure to domoic acid occurs via the consumption of contaminated shellfish that have(More)
Toxicity tests with lyophilized M. aeruginosa NRC-1 cells have been conducted using mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, chickens, ducks, two calves and one lamb as the test animals. The symptoms and pathological changes are described. On an equivalent weight basis it required three to five times the oral dosage to kill the large animals and birds as it did to kill(More)
Presumptive evidence of toxoplasmosis was obtained following histological and serological studies of tissues from chickens and cats kept on a family farm. This was confirmed by transmission of the infection to experimental laboratory animals and back to chickens. The significance of the low grade serological reaction in one of the persons living on the farm(More)
After ingestion of a specimen of the crab Zosimus aeneus (Xanthidae), an East Timorese adult male died within several hours. Xanthid crabs are known to harbour paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), tetrodotoxin and palytoxin. A post-mortem examination did not find any obvious pathological abnormalities. This absence of pathologies is more often associated with(More)
We report for the first time, the presence of saxitoxin (STX) in a common cephalopod, Octopus (Abdopus) sp. 5, collected from Cooke Point on the northern coastline of Western Australia. Sodium channel and saxiphilin based radio-receptor assays detected saxitoxin-like binding in octopi extracts. Further analysis by liquid chromatography-fluorescence(More)
Serological studies were performed in guinea pigs, a sheep, calf, goat and two pigs experimentally infected with toxoplasmosis. The direct complement-fixation method was effective in detecting antibodies in guinea-pig, goat and sheep sera. The modified complement-fixation technique supplementing complement with normal bovine serum fraction, was required(More)