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Increasing awareness that the human intestinal flora is a major factor in health and disease has led to different strategies to manipulate the flora to promote health. The complex microflora of the adult is difficult to change in the long term. There is greater impact of diet on the infant microflora. Manipulation of the flora particularly with probiotics(More)
Fresh feces from 27 healthy infants-12 breastfed (complete, exclusive breast-feeding), 7 in early weaning (partial, high breast-feeding), and 8 in late weaning (partial, low breast-feeding)-were cultured with simple and complex carbohydrates in vitro to test the hypothesis that colonic fermentation capacity for carbohydrates increases during weaning.(More)
Unabsorbed carbohydrates are fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are rapidly absorbed, salvaging energy and reducing stool output. There are marked differences between the faecal flora and SCFA of breast fed (BF) and formula fed (FF) infants which may be related to the higher incidence of diarrhoea in FF infants. Part of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate longitudinally the effectiveness of a cooking programme on self-reported confidence about cooking skills and food consumption patterns in parents of young children. DESIGN An evaluation of cooking programmes delivered by National Health Service (NHS) community food workers using a single group pre-test/post-test repeated measures(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) rescues motor neurons in animal models of injury and neurodegeneration, and disruption of the mouse CNTF gene results in motor neuron degeneration in mature adults. Glial cells increase nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in neuropathological conditions, and the sensory system can be affected in the amyotrophic lateral(More)
OBJECTIVES Bacterial colonization of the infant gut may have important influences on the development of gastrointestinal, respiratory, and allergic disease. Early diet is a major determinant of the gut microflora. It is very difficult to carry out studies in human infants that can investigate the interaction of diet, flora, and mucosa. In this study we have(More)
The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants differs from that of formula-fed infants. It is thought that this difference in flora may be one important reason why breast-fed babies suffer less from gastrointestinal disease. Differences in intestinal flora are reflected in the profile of faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Very little is known about faecal(More)
There is very little evidence for the effects of dietary fibre in young children and current dietary guidelines are based on assumptions and data extrapolated from studies in adults. The first years of life may be critical for the establishment of a healthy colonic microflora, as well as good eating habits. The lack of clear and well-founded guidelines for(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Health professionals are frequently asked to advise on aspects of complementary feeding. This study aimed to describe the types of commercial infant foods available in the UK and provide an overview of their taste, texture and nutritional content in terms of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, sugar, iron, sodium and calcium. METHOD(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to describe the food retail environment and its use in a deprived urban area in Scotland by mapping all food outlets and determining where residents do their main food shopping as well as investigating the availability of fresh fruit and vegetables (F&V) (as an indicator of healthy eating) and takeaway food. STUDY DESIGN(More)