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Elafin (elastase-specific inhibitor) is a low molecular weight inhibitor of neutrophil elastase which is secreted in the lung. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to full-length elafin (H2N-1AVT.....95Q-OH), the NH2-terminal domain (H2N-1AVT.....50K-OH) and the COOH-terminal domain (H2N-51PGS.....95Q-OH), we demonstrate that elafin's anti-elastase(More)
beta-Defensin genes encode broad spectrum antimicrobial cationic peptides. We have analysed the largest murine and human clusters of these genes, which localise to mouse and human chromosome 8. Using hidden Markov models, we identified novel mouse and human beta-defensin genes. We subsequently found full-length expressed transcripts for these novel genes.(More)
Defensin are 3-4 kDa antimicrobial peptides of which three distinct families have been identified; alpha-defensin, beta-defensins, and insect defensins. Recent investigations have shown that beta-defensins are present in the human airways and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We report here the further(More)
Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides that have a characteristic six-cysteine motif and are important components of the innate immune system. We recently described a beta-defensin-related peptide (Defr1) that had potent antimicrobial activity despite having only five cysteines. Here we report a relationship between the structure and activity of(More)
To study the complex inter-relationships between inflammatory and apoptotic responses and the kynurenine pathway, we have utilized electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry to develop trace analyses to concurrently quantify nicotinic acid (NIC), picolinic acid (PIC) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) in biological samples. We have shown that NIC and its amide(More)
BACKGROUND We have examined the evolution of the genes at the major human beta-defensin locus and the orthologous loci in a range of other primates and mouse. For the first time these data allow us to examine selective episodes in the more recent evolutionary history of this locus as well as the ancient past. We have used a combination of maximum likelihood(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen often found in pneumonia and sepsis. In the context of the resistance of this organism to conventional antibiotics, an understanding of the regulation of natural endogenous antimicrobial molecules is of paramount importance. Previous studies have shown that both human and mouse airways express a variety of these(More)
Background: We have examined the evolution of the genes at the major human β-defensin locus and the orthologous loci in a range of other primates and mouse. For the first time these data allow us to examine selective episodes in the more recent evolutionary history of this locus as well as the ancient past. We have used a combination of maximum likelihood(More)
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