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OBJECTIVES To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process,(More)
AIMS (1) To identify whether infants and young children admitted to hospital with subdural haematomas (SDH) secondary to non-accidental head injury (NAHI), suffer from apnoea leading to radiological evidence of hypoxic ischaemic brain damage, and whether this is related to a poor prognosis; and (2) to determine what degree of trauma is associated with NAHI.(More)
Professionals in child health, primary care, mental health, schools, social services, and law-enforcement services all contribute to the recognition of and response to child maltreatment. In all sectors, children suspected of being maltreated are under-reported to child-protection agencies. Lack of awareness of the signs of child maltreatment and processes(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify the evidence base behind the neuroradiological features that differentiate abusive head trauma (AHT) from non-abusive head trauma (nAHT). DESIGN Systematic review. SETTING Literature search of 14 databases, websites, textbooks, conference abstracts and references (1970-February 2010). Studies had two independent reviews (three if(More)
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE To determine which combinations of clinical features assist in distinguishing abusive head trauma (AHT) from nonabusive head trauma. METHODS Individual patient data from 6 comparative studies of children younger than 3 years with intracranial injury were analyzed to determine the association between AHT and combinations of apnea;(More)
PURPOSE To systematically review the characteristics, prevalence, evolution, and obstetric associations of retinal hemorrhages (RH) in newborns. METHODS A systematic review, searching 10 databases (1970-2011), identified 45 studies, which underwent two independent reviews via the use of standardized critical appraisal. Studies meeting the following(More)
OBJECTIVES To define what abusive visceral injuries occur, including their clinical features and the value of screening tests for abdominal injury among abused children. METHODS We searched 12 databases, with snowballing techniques, for the period 1950-2011, with all identified studies undergoing two independent reviews by trained reviewers, drawn from(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify the incidence, clinical outcome, and associated factors of subdural haemorrhage in children under 2 years of age, and to determine how such cases were investigated and how many were due to child abuse. DESIGN Population based case series. SETTING South Wales and south west England. SUBJECTS Children under 2 years of age who had(More)
OBJECTIVE Fracture dating significantly shapes decisions in child protection. With a dearth of primary evidence underpinning fracture dating in children, we examined the key radiologic features of fracture healing and their timelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS Digital radiographs of children younger than 72 months old with accidental long bone fractures of(More)
AIMS To investigate the optimal neuroradiological investigation strategy to identify inflicted brain injury (iBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic review of studies published between 1970-2008 in any language was conducted, searching 20 databases and four websites, using over 100 keywords/phrases, supplemented by hand-searching of references. All(More)