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Professionals in child health, primary care, mental health, schools, social services, and law-enforcement services all contribute to the recognition of and response to child maltreatment. In all sectors, children suspected of being maltreated are under-reported to child-protection agencies. Lack of awareness of the signs of child maltreatment and processes(More)
AIMS (1) To identify whether infants and young children admitted to hospital with subdural haematomas (SDH) secondary to non-accidental head injury (NAHI), suffer from apnoea leading to radiological evidence of hypoxic ischaemic brain damage, and whether this is related to a poor prognosis; and (2) to determine what degree of trauma is associated with NAHI.(More)
BACKGROUND The safety of playgrounds is important to protect children from injury, but studies are mostly done mainly under laboratory conditions without epidemiological data. We investigated the safety of different playground surfaces, and types and heights of equipment in public playgrounds in the City of Cardiff, UK. METHODS We did a correlational(More)
IMPORTANCE Early intervention for neglect or emotional abuse in preschoolers may mitigate lifelong consequences, yet practitioners lack confidence in recognizing these children. OBJECTIVE To define the emotional, behavioral, and developmental features of neglect or emotional abuse in preschoolers. EVIDENCE REVIEW A literature search of 18 databases, 6(More)
PRACTICE For the full versions of these articles see bmj.com themselves be alerting features. The guidance should not be used as a definitive diagnostic tool to prove or disprove maltreatment. This article summarises key points in the NICE guidance. Key points NICE recommendations are based on systematic reviews of best available evidence. When minimal(More)
AIM A systematic review of the scientific literature to define clinical indicators distinguishing inflicted (iBI) from non-inflicted brain injury (niBI). METHODS An all language literature search of 20 electronic databases, websites, references and bibliographies from 1970-2008 was carried out. Relevant studies were independently reviewed by two trained(More)
OBJECTIVES To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process,(More)
AIMS To investigate what patterns of bruising are diagnostic or suggestive of child abuse by means of a systematic review. METHODS All language literature search 1951-2004. Included: studies that defined patterns of bruising in non-abused or abused children <18 years. Excluded: personal practice, review articles, single case reports, inadequate(More)
BACKGROUND Interventions to minimize the long-term consequences of neglect or emotional abuse rely on prompt identification of these children. This systematic review of world literature (1947-2012) identifies features that children aged 5-14 years experiencing neglect or emotional abuse, as opposed to physical or sexual abuse, may exhibit. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Many countries now offer support to teenage mothers to help them to achieve long-term socioeconomic stability and to give a successful start to their children. The Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) is a licensed intensive home-visiting intervention developed in the USA and introduced into practice in England that involves up to 64 structured home(More)