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Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene(More)
Cancer is driven by mutation. Worldwide, tobacco smoking is the principal lifestyle exposure that causes cancer, exerting carcinogenicity through >60 chemicals that bind and mutate DNA. Using massively parallel sequencing technology, we sequenced a small-cell lung cancer cell line, NCI-H209, to explore the mutational burden associated with tobacco smoking.(More)
Expansion of polyglutamine-encoding CAG trinucleotide repeats has been identified as the pathogenic mutation in nine different genes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. The majority of individuals clinically diagnosed with spinocerebellar ataxia do not have mutations within known disease genes, and it is likely that additional ataxias or Huntington(More)
The targeted capture and sequencing of genomic regions has rapidly demonstrated its utility in genetic studies. Inherent in this technology is considerable heterogeneity of target coverage and this is expected to systematically impact our sensitivity to detect genuine polymorphisms. To fully interpret the polymorphisms identified in a genetic study it is(More)
BACKGROUND Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem disorder with distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and growth failure as prominent features. Most individuals with typical CdLS have de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in NIPBL with mosaic individuals representing a significant proportion. Mutations in other cohesin(More)
Exome sequence analysis of affected individuals from two families with autosomal-dominant inheritance of coloboma identified two different cosegregating heterozygous nonsense mutations (c.370C>T [p.Arg124*] and c. 1066G>T [p.Glu356*]) in YAP1. The phenotypes of the affected families differed in that one included no extraocular features and the other(More)
Less than two percent of the human genome is protein coding, yet that small fraction harbours the majority of known disease causing mutations. Despite rapidly falling whole genome sequencing (WGS) costs, much research and increasingly the clinical use of sequence data is likely to remain focused on the protein coding exome. We set out to quantify and(More)
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 3A is caused by mutations in ALDH18A1, a gene encoding the mitochondrial enzyme Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS). It is a rare disorder with only six pathogenic mutations and 10 affected individuals from five families previously described in the literature. Here we report the identification of novel compound(More)
We identified four different missense mutations in the single-exon gene MAB21L2 in eight individuals with bilateral eye malformations from five unrelated families via three independent exome sequencing projects. Three mutational events altered the same amino acid (Arg51), and two were identical de novo mutations (c.151C>T [p.Arg51Cys]) in unrelated children(More)