Alison M. Laffan

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CONTEXT Sleep-disordered breathing (characterized by recurrent arousals from sleep and intermittent hypoxemia) is common among older adults. Cross-sectional studies have linked sleep-disordered breathing to poor cognition; however, it remains unclear whether sleep-disordered breathing precedes cognitive impairment in older adults. OBJECTIVES To determine(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder whose prevalence is linked to an epidemic of obesity in Western society. Sleep apnea is due to recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep that are caused by elevations in upper airway collapsibility during sleep. Collapsibility can be increased by underlying anatomic alterations and/or(More)
RATIONALE Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance and liver injury. It is unknown whether apnea contributes to insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in severe obesity. OBJECTIVES To examine whether sleep apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia predict the severity of insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, and steatohepatitis in severely(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the incidence and prevalence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in a long-term care facility (LTCF). DESIGN Retrospective review of CDAD cases between July 2001 and December 2003. SETTING Two hundred two-bed LTCF affiliated with an academic medical center in Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS All residents of the(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the association between sleep architecture, sleep-disordered breathing, and cognition in older men. DESIGN Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING Six clinical sites in the United States. PARTICIPANTS Two thousand nine hundred nine community-dwelling men aged 67 and older who were not selected on the basis of sleep(More)
Aging is associated with an earlier timing of circadian rhythms and a shorter phase angle between wake time and the timing of melatonin secretion or the core body temperature nadir. Light has a phase-dependent effect on the circadian pacemaker, and modifications of habitual light exposure in older people could contribute to a change in the timing of(More)
Male sex, obesity, and age are risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea, although the mechanisms by which these factors increase sleep apnea susceptibility are not entirely understood. This study examined the interrelationships between sleep apnea risk factors, upper airway mechanics, and sleep apnea susceptibility. In 164 (86 men, 78 women) participants(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To examine associations of objectively and subjectively measured sleep with subsequent cognitive decline. DESIGN A population-based longitudinal study. SETTING Six centers in the United States. PARTICIPANTS Participants were 2,822 cognitively intact community-dwelling older men (mean age 76.0 ± 5.3 y) followed over 3.4 ± 0.5 y. (More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), a group of disorders common in older adults characterized by breathing pauses during sleep often accompanied by hypoxemia, is associated with cognitive decline. DESIGN Population-based longitudinal study. SETTING Six centers in the United States. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling older(More)
BACKGROUND Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and neck circumference (NC) are important screening tools for sleep disordered breathing (SDB); however, the utility of anthropometry for this purpose has not been evaluated among HIV-positive patients. METHODS HIV-negative men (n=60), HIV-positive men receiving highly active antiretroviral(More)