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Language researchers and designers have extended a wide variety of type systems to support gradual typing, which enables languages to seamlessly combine dynamic and static checking. These efforts consistently demonstrate that designing a satisfactory gradual counterpart to a static type system is challenging, and this challenge only increases with the(More)
In February 2003, a postal survey of 1279 sheep farmers in the Shetland Islands yielded 586 responses (46 per cent response rate). The principal aim of the survey was to gather information on the history and control of scrapie. Overall, 28.5 per cent of the respondents thought they had had a case of scrapie in their flock at some time. There was a slow(More)
A scheme to control and eradicate bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) was initiated in 1994 in the Shetland Islands by local veterinary surgeons and funded by the Shetland Islands Council and Shetland Enterprise Company. Over a 3-year period every bovine animal on the islands was blood-sampled (heparinised) and laboratory tested using MAb-based ELISAs for BVD(More)
To determine the levels of background scrapie-like pathology in the brains of clinically normal adult sheep, the brains of 1106 sheep from 28 known scrapie-infected flocks and nine apparently uninfected flocks were examined during 1998 and 1999. One per cent of the brains had vacuolar pathology and disease-specific accumulations of prion protein consistent(More)