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Recent studies suggest that populations and species often exhibit behavioral syndromes; that is, suites of correlated behaviors across situations. An example is an aggression syndrome where some individuals are more aggressive, whereas others are less aggressive across a range of situations and contexts. The existence of behavioral syndromes focuses the(More)
A behavioral syndrome is a suite of correlated behaviors expressed either within a given behavioral context (e.g., correlations between foraging behaviors in different habitats) or across different contexts (e.g., correlations among feeding, antipredator, mating, aggressive, and dispersal behaviors). For example, some individuals (and genotypes) might be(More)
There is increasing interest in individual differences in animal behaviour. Recent research now suggests that an individual's behaviour, once considered to be plastic, may be more predictable than previously thought. Here, we take advantage of the large number of studies that have estimated the repeatability of various behaviours to evaluate whether there(More)
A perplexing new question that has emerged from the recent surge of interest in behavioural syndromes or animal personalities is--why do individual animals behave consistently when behavioural flexibility is advantageous? If individuals have a tendency to be generally aggressive, then a relatively aggressive individual might be overly aggressive towards(More)
A behavioural syndrome occurs when individuals behave in a consistent way through time or across contexts and is analogous to 'personality' or 'temperament'. Interest is accumulating in behavioural syndromes owing to their important ecological and evolutionary consequences. There are plenty of opportunities in this burgeoning young field to integrate(More)
Behavioural syndromes are correlations between behaviours in different functional contexts. Behavioural syndromes are attracting the attention of evolutionary biologists because they mean that different behaviours might not be free to evolve independently of one another. In a landmark study, Huntingford (1976) showed that individual stickleback which were(More)
How predators and prey interact has important consequences for population dynamics and community stability. Here we explored how predator-prey interactions are simultaneously affected by reciprocal behavioral plasticity (i.e., plasticity in prey defenses countered by plasticity in predator offenses and vice versa) and consistent individual behavioral(More)
Variable neuroendocrine responses to ecologically-relevant challenges in sticklebacks. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2006. Here, we compare the behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine responses of individual sticklebacks exposed to either an unfamiliar conspecific or to a predator. We found that the two stressors elicited a similar(More)
Certain complex phenotypes appear repeatedly across diverse species due to processes of evolutionary conservation and convergence. In some contexts like developmental body patterning, there is increased appreciation that common molecular mechanisms underlie common phenotypes; these molecular mechanisms include highly conserved genes and networks that may be(More)