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CD4(+) T helper 2 (T(H)2) cells secrete interleukin (IL)4, IL5 and IL13, and are required for immunity to gastrointestinal helminth infections. However, T(H)2 cells also promote chronic inflammation associated with asthma and allergic disorders. The non-haematopoietic-cell-derived cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL33 and IL25 (also known as IL17E)(More)
Severe asthma is associated with the production of interleukin 17A (IL-17A). The exact role of IL-17A in severe asthma and the factors that drive its production are unknown. Here we demonstrate that IL-17A mediated severe airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in susceptible strains of mice by enhancing IL-13-driven responses. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that(More)
BACKGROUND IL-17A has been implicated in severe forms of asthma. However, the factors that promote IL-17A production during the pathogenesis of severe asthma remain undefined. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of traffic-related air pollution and are implicated in asthma pathogenesis and exacerbation. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine(More)
BACKGROUND The D-prostanoid receptor and the chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on T(H)2 cells (CRTH2) are implicated in asthma pathogenesis. AMG 853 is a potent, selective, orally bioavailable, small-molecule dual antagonist of human D-prostanoid and CRTH2. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of AMG 853 compared(More)
IL-25 (IL-17E) is a unique IL-17 family ligand that promotes Th2-skewed inflammatory responses. Intranasal administration of IL-25 into naive mice induces pulmonary inflammation similar to that seen in patients with allergic asthma, including increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophils, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations,(More)
Butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) is a butyrophilin family member with homology to the B7 costimulatory molecules, polymorphisms of which have been recently associated through genetic analyses to sporadic inclusion body myositis and sarcoidosis. We have characterized the full structure, expression, and function of BTNL2. Structural analysis of BTNL2 shows a(More)
Interleukin-23 (IL-23) and IL-17 are cytokines currently being targeted in clinical trials. Although inhibition of both of these cytokines is effective for treating psoriasis, IL-12 and IL-23 p40 inhibition attenuates Crohn's disease, whereas IL-17A or IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) inhibition exacerbates Crohn's disease. This dichotomy between IL-23 and IL-17(More)
In the present studies local neutralization of allergen-induced stem cell factor (SCF) leads to decreased production of Th2 cytokines, a reduction in inflammation, allergen-specific serum IgE/IgG1, and attenuation of severe asthma-like responses. The local blockade of pulmonary SCF also resulted in a significant reduction of IL-17E (IL-25). Sorted cell(More)
Th17 cells are abundant in multiple chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Clinical trials with antibodies to interleukin (IL)-17A, one of the Th17-cell signature cytokines, have recently reported therapeutic benefit in multiple patient populations; however, in Crohn's disease the role of Th17 cells and IL-17A appears to be more complicated. The(More)
The epithelial-derived cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is sufficient to induce asthma or atopic dermatitis-like phenotypes when selectively overexpressed in transgenic mice, or when driven by topical application of vitamin D3 or low-calcemic analogues. Although T and B cells have been reported to be dispensable for the TSLP-induced inflammation(More)