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BACKGROUND Few meta-analyses of randomised trials assess the quality of the studies included. Yet there is increasing evidence that trial quality can affect estimates of intervention efficacy. We investigated whether different methods of quality assessment provide different estimates of intervention efficacy evaluated in randomised controlled trials (RCTs).(More)
The epidemic character of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, especially the geographically widespread clone USA300, is poorly understood. USA300 isolates carry a type IV staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) element conferring beta-lactam antibiotic class resistance and a putative pathogenicity island, arginine(More)
The risk of rapid pest adaptation to an insecticide is highly dependent on the initial frequency of resistance alleles in field populations. Because we have lacked empirical estimates of these frequencies, population-genetic models of resistance evolution have relied on a wide range of theoretical estimates. The recent commercialization of genetically(More)
PURPOSE TAnDEM is the first randomized phase III study to combine a hormonal agent and trastuzumab without chemotherapy as treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/hormone receptor-copositive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS Postmenopausal women with HER2/hormone receptor-copositive MBC were randomly assigned to(More)
The global prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of uncertain etiology may be underreported. Community-level epidemiological studies are few due to the lack of national registries and poor focus on the reporting of non-communicable diseases. Here we describe the prevalence of proteinuric-CKD and disease characteristics of three rural populations in the(More)
OBJECTIVES To explore why cancer patients do not want or seek information about their condition beyond that volunteered by their physicians at times during their illness. DESIGN Qualitative study based on in-depth interviews. SETTING Outpatient oncology clinics at a London cancer centre. PARTICIPANTS 17 patients with cancer diagnosed in previous 6(More)
CONTEXT Review articles are important sources of information to help guide decisions by clinicians, patients, and other decision makers. Ideally, reviews should include strategies to minimize bias and to maximize precision and be reported so explicitly that any interested reader would be able to replicate them. OBJECTIVE To compare the methodological and(More)
Inhibitory interneurons play important roles in neuronal circuits, but the synaptic mechanisms that regulate excitatory input onto interneurons remain to be fully understood. We show that ATP-gated presynaptic P2X2 channels facilitate excitatory transmission onto stratum radiatum interneurons but not onto CA1 pyramidal neurons. ATP released endogenously(More)
CONTEXT The Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) statement was developed to help improve the quality of reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To date, a paucity of data exists regarding whether it has achieved this goal. OBJECTIVE To determine whether use of the CONSORT statement is associated with improvement in the quality(More)