Alison Johnson

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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda from a sentinel monkey in 1947. Mosquito and sentinel animal surveillance studies have demonstrated that ZIKV is endemic to Africa and Southeast Asia, yet reported human cases are rare, with <10 cases reported in the literature. In June 2007, an epidemic of fever and rash associated(More)
BACKGROUND In the summer of 1999, West Nile virus was recognised in the western hemisphere for the first time when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and meningitis in the metropolitan area of New York City, NY, USA. Intensive hospital-based surveillance identified 59 cases, including seven deaths in the region. We did a household-based(More)
The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and high-level HIV replication on the function of monocytes was investigated. HIV-positive patients had elevated levels of spontaneous production of some or all of the monocyte proinflammatory cytokines measured (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha])(More)
Several dengue (DEN) virus vaccines are in development; however, the lack of a reliable small animal model in which to test them is a major obstacle. Because evidence suggests that interferon (IFN) is involved in the human anti-DEN virus response, we tested mice deficient in their IFN functions as potential models. Intraperitoneally administered(More)
We have previously isolated and characterized two dengue (DEN) 2 viruses mutant in their fusion-from-within (FFWI) phenotype in the insect cell line C6/36. Both viruses lost a potential glycosylation site (Asn-153) in the envelope (E) glycoprotein. To determine whether the change in FFWI phenotype was due to a change in E-glycoprotein glycosylation, we(More)
Immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) is a rapid and versatile diagnostic method that readily permits the combination of multiple assays. Test consolidation is especially important for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) which belong to at least three virus families: the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and(More)
Monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G (IgG ELISAs) were developed for a comprehensive array of medically important arboviruses from the Alphavirus, Flavivirus, and Bunyavirus genera. Tests were optimized and standardized so that maximum homology could be(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has been associated with perturbations of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), including diminished frequencies in the peripheral blood and reduced production of type I interferons (IFNs) in response to in vitro stimulation. However, recent data suggest a paradoxical increase in production of type 1(More)
We used computer analysis to study hydrophilicity, homology, surface accessibility, molecular flexibility, and secondary structure of the deduced amino acid sequence of the flavivirus envelope (E)-glycoprotein. Using the results, we modified the E-glycoprotein antigenic structure proposed by Nowak and Wengler (1987, Virology, 156, 127-137). Our model(More)
Virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell function is thought to play a central role in induction and maintenance of effective CD8(+) T-cell responses in experimental animals or humans. However, the reasons that diminished proliferation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD4(+) T cells is observed in the majority of infected patients and the role of these(More)