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In vivo levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, present in the interstitial spaces of brain, have been repeatedly monitored up to 7 days after insertion of a microdialysis probe, designed to induce mechanical trauma to the brain. IL-1 is barely detectable immediately after implantation but over a 24-48 h period a 15-fold increase is seen. In contrast IL-6(More)
The expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and a number of metalloproteases as well as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 (TIMP-1) was analyzed in the central nervous system (CNS) of normal control and multiple sclerosis (MS) cases by immunohistopathology. The expression of t-PA was(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression at the blood-brain barrier prevents unwanted blood-borne toxins and signalling molecules from entering the brain. Primary and immortalised human brain endothelial cells (BECs) represent two suitable options for studying P-gp function in vitro. The limited supply of primary human BECs and their instability over passage number(More)
Vascular dysfunction is emerging as a key pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been described in AD patient tissue and in vivo AD mouse models. Brain endothelial cells (BECs) are linked together by tight junctional (TJ) proteins, which are a key determinant in restricting the permeability of the BBB. The(More)
The expression of chemokine receptors and chemokine production by adult human non-transformed astrocytes, grade III astrocytoma and grade IV glioblastoma tumour cell lines were determined. Here, we show an increased expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4, and a decreased expression of CXCR1 and CCR4 by glioma cells compared to adult human astrocytes. Glioma cells(More)
We reported previously that accumulation of myelin basic protein (MBP) in foetal brain aggregate cultures is enhanced by supplementation with peritoneal macrophages. The present study demonstrates that the rate of MBP accumulation in macrophage-enriched cultures continues to increase over time unaccompanied by a matching increase in the oligodendrocyte(More)
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The demyelinative potential of the cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been investigated in myelinating aggregate brain cell cultures. Treatment of myelinated cultures with these cytokines resulted in a reduction in myelin basic protein (MBP) content. This effect was(More)
Adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from rats and differentiated to a Schwann cell-like phenotype in vitro. The differentiated cells (dADSCs) underwent self-alignment in a tethered type-1 collagen gel, followed by stabilisation to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT-dADSC). The pro-regenerative phenotype of dADSCs was enhanced by this process, and(More)