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Cell envelope fractions from Salmonella can utilize exogenous lipid-linked intermediates for the synthesis of polymeric O-antigen. We describe a method for preparing aqueous suspensions of lipid intermediates and show that freezing and thawing of cell envelope-lipid intermediate mixtures is required for efficient synthesis. The lipid intermediates move(More)
Mutants of the Salmonella phage P22 which, as prophages, do not prevent the growth of superinfecting virulent P22 phage were isolated. These mutants, called sieA-, retain some ability to exclude the heteroimmune phages L and MG178. Pro-phages carrying mutations at another locus, sieB, lose entirely the ability to exclude the heteroimmune phages. The(More)
HIV is transmitted sexually through mucosal surfaces where IgA Abs are the first line of immune defense. In this study, we used paired IgA and IgG mAbs against HIV gp160 to study intraepithelial cell neutralization and inhibition of HIV replication. African green monkey kidney cells, Vero C1008, polarizable epithelial cells transfected to express the(More)
We show that intraepithelial cell neutralization of HIV by IgA antibodies to internal viral proteins can occur during antibody transcytosis from the basolateral to the apical surface. Polarized epithelial cells expressing the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) were transfected with HIV proviral DNA, and IgA was added to the basolateral side.(More)
Growth temperature affects both the structure and the phage-inactivating capacity of Salmonella anatum A1 lipopolysaccharide. Whereas S. anatum cells normally synthesize smooth lipopolysaccharide when grown at physiological temperature (37 degrees C), a partial smooth-rough transition occurs when cells are grown at low temperature (20 to 25 degrees C). The(More)
Twenty-six antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), targeting five different steps in the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), have been approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Accordingly, HIV-1 phenotypic assays based on common cloning technology currently employ three, or possibly four, different recombinant viruses. Here, we(More)
CCR5 antagonists are a powerful new class of antiretroviral drugs that require a companion assay to evaluate the presence of CXCR4-tropic (non-R5) viruses prior to use in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. In this study, we have developed, characterized, verified, and prevalidated a novel phenotypic test to determine HIV-1 coreceptor(More)